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SARS-CoV-2 journey: from alpha variant to omicron and its sub-variants

Hattab et al., Infection, doi:10.1007/s15010-024-02223-y
Mar 2024  
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Review of SARS-CoV-2 variants showing increased transmissibility, disease severity, and immune escape with mutations in the spike protein receptor binding domain. Authors cover variants from the initial D614G mutation through omicron sub-variants and recombinants. Extensive mutations enable the variants to evade neutralizing antibodies from prior infection, vaccination, and monoclonal antibody treatments.
Efficacy is variant dependent. In Vitro research suggests a lack of efficacy for omicron BQ.1.11, BA.5, BA.2.75, XBB2.
Hattab et al., 30 Mar 2024, peer-reviewed, 4 authors. Contact: athirah.bakhtiar@monash.edu.
This PaperBebtelovimabAll
SARS-CoV-2 journey: from alpha variant to omicron and its sub-variants
Dima Hattab, Mumen F A Amer, Zina M Al-Alami, Athirah Bakhtiar
Infection, doi:10.1007/s15010-024-02223-y
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected hundreds of millions of individuals and caused more than six million deaths. The prolonged pandemic duration and the continual inter-individual transmissibility have contributed to the emergence of a wide variety of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Genomic surveillance and phylogenetic studies have shown that substantial mutations in crucial supersites of spike glycoprotein modulate the binding affinity of the evolved SARS-COV-2 lineages to ACE2 receptors and modify the binding of spike protein with neutralizing antibodies. The immunological spike mutations have been associated with differential transmissibility, infectivity, and therapeutic efficacy of the vaccines and the immunological therapies among the new variants. This review highlights the diverse genetic mutations assimilated in various SARS-CoV-2 variants. The implications of the acquired mutations related to viral transmission, infectivity, and COVID-19 severity are discussed. This review also addresses the effectiveness of human neutralizing antibodies induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection or immunization and the therapeutic antibodies against the ascended variants.
Author contribution DH had the idea of the review and performed the literature review and data analysis. DH wrote the original draft of the manuscript. MA, ZA-A, and AB reviewed and edited the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final article. Declarations Conflict of interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http:// creat iveco mmons. org/ licen ses/ by/4. 0/.
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