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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case -42% unadjusted Improvement Relative Risk Exercise for COVID-19  Gilley et al.  Prophylaxis Does physical activity reduce risk for COVID-19? Retrospective 1,996 patients in the USA (September - December 2020) More cases with higher activity levels (not stat. sig., p=0.55) Gilley et al., JMIR Mental Health, Feb 2022 Favors exercise Favors inactivity

Risk Factors for COVID-19 in College Students Identified by Physical, Mental, and Social Health Reported During the Fall 2020 Semester: Observational Study Using the Roadmap App and Fitbit Wearable Sensors

Gilley et al., JMIR Mental Health, doi:10.2196/34645, NCT04766788
Feb 2022  
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Retrospective survey of 1,997 college students in the USA, showing no significant difference in COVID-19 cases with exercise in unadjusted results.
risk of case, 41.8% higher, RR 1.42, p = 0.55, high activity levels 172 of 1,917 (9.0%), low activity levels 5 of 79 (6.3%), unadjusted.
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Gilley et al., 10 Feb 2022, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, survey, 21 authors, study period September 2020 - December 2020, trial NCT04766788 (history).
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Monitoring Beliefs and Physiological Measures Using Wearable Sensors and Smartphone Technology Among Students at Risk of COVID-19: Protocol for a mHealth Study
BS Christine Cislo, BS Caroline Ashley Clingan, Kristen N Gilley, Michelle Lois Rozwadowski, MSc Izzy Gainsburg, Christina Bradley, Jenny Barabas, Erin Sandford, Mary Olesnavich, Jonathan Tyler, Caleb Mayer, BS Matthew Stephen Demoss, Christopher Flora, PhD Daniel B Forger, PhD Julia Lee Cunningham, PhD; Muneesh Muneesh Tewari, MD, PhD Sung Won Choi
JMIR Research Protocols, doi:10.2196/29561
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a seismic shift in education to web-based learning. With nearly 20 million students enrolled in colleges across the United States, the long-simmering mental health crisis in college students was likely further exacerbated by the pandemic. Objective: This study leveraged mobile health (mHealth) technology and sought to (1) characterize self-reported outcomes of physical, mental, and social health by COVID-19 status; (2) assess physical activity through consumer-grade wearable sensors (Fitbit); and (3) identify risk factors associated with COVID-19 positivity in a population of college students prior to release of the vaccine.
Authors' Contributions KNG drafted the manuscript, coordinated the study, carried out recruitment, provided consent, carried out onboarding, and curated the data and figures. LB and MY drafted the manuscript and curated the data and figures. IG and CB critically reviewed and edited the manuscript, selected the survey measurements, and designed the study methodology. NR critically reviewed and edited the manuscript and curated the data. C Cislo, MLR, and C Clingan critically reviewed and edited the manuscript, coordinated the study, carried out recruitment and onboarding, obtained consent, and curated the data. MSD critically reviewed and edited the manuscript, designed the study methodology, and curated the data and figures. TC critically reviewed and edited the manuscript. KB, NC, MC, JG, and RFZ critically reviewed and edited the manuscript and designed the study methodology. DF designed the study methodology, supervised the study, critically reviewed and edited the manuscript, and created the Social Rhythms app. JLC critically reviewed and edited the manuscript, selected the study measurements, and designed the study methodology. SC critically reviewed and edited the manuscript, supervised the study, and designed the study methodology. MT and SC curated the data, carried out the investigation, curated the resources, supervised the study, visualized the data, and drafted, edited, and critically revised the manuscript. SC created the Roadmap 2.0 app. Conflicts of Interest..
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