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Higher Scores of Ambient Temperature, Sunshine Hours and UV Index are Associated with Lower COVID-19 Mortality

Errasfa, M., The Open COVID Journal, doi:10.2174/26669587-v2-e221209-2022-24
Dec 2022  
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Sunlight for COVID-19
32nd treatment shown to reduce risk in December 2021
 
*, now with p = 0.000052 from 5 studies.
Lower risk for mortality, hospitalization, recovery, and cases.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 81 treatments. c19early.org
Analysis of COVID-19 deaths in 39 countries, showing mortality negatively correlated with sunshine hours.
Errasfa et al., 30 Dec 2022, Morocco, peer-reviewed, 1 author. Contact: mourad.errasfa@usmba.ac.ma.
This PaperSunlightAll
Higher Scores of Ambient Temperature, Sunshine Hours and UV Index are Associated with Lower COVID-19 Mortality
Mourad Errasfa
The Open COVID Journal, doi:10.2174/26669587-v2-e221209-2022-24
Background: Following two years of the COVID-19 pandemic, thousands of deaths were registered around the world. A question on whether climate parameters in each country could or not affect coronavirus incidence and COVID-19 death toll is under debate.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST The author declares no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise. AKNOWLEDGEMENTS Declared none.
References
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A question on whether climate parameters in each country ' 'could or not affect coronavirus incidence and COVID-19 death toll is under debate.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Objective:</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>In this work, we aimed to analyse possible relation between the ' 'prevalence of COVID-19 deaths and the geographic latitude. The study focused on the ' 'geographic latitudes and some of their associated climate factors, such as the average annual ' 'level of temperature, sunshine hours and UV index.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Methods:</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>We sought the number of the deaths caused by COVID-19 in 39 ' 'countries. Latitude levels were plotted against the average annual levels of either ' 'temperature, sunshine hours or UV index. Data were analysed by simple linear regression or ' 'polynomial regression, by means of Microsoft Excel software (2016).</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Results:</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>When COVID-19 death numbers were plotted against geographic ' 'latitudes, we obtained inverted bell-shaped curves, for both the first and second year of the ' 'pandemic, with a coefficient of determination of (R<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> = 0,32) and ' '(R<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> = 0,39), respectively. In addition, COVID-19 death numbers were very ' 'negatively correlated with the average annual levels of temperature (R<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> ' '= 0,52, P= 4.92x10<jats:sup>-7</jats:sup>), sunshine hours (R<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> = 0,36, ' 'P= 7.68x10<jats:sup>-6</jats:sup>) and UV index (R<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> = 0,38, P= ' '4.16x10<jats:sup>-5</jats:sup>). Bell-shaped curves were obtained when latitude was plotted ' 'against the average annual number of temperature, sunshine hours and UV index, with a ' 'coefficient of determination of (R<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> = 0,85), (R<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> = ' '0,452) and (R<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> = 0,87), respectively.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Conclusion:</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>In contrast to high-latitude countries, countries located at low ' 'latitudes may have suffered less COVID-19 death tolls, thanks to their elevated temperature, ' 'sunshine hours and UV index. The above climate factors, in addition to yet unknown factors, ' 'could have impaired the spread of the coronavirus and/or helped individual’s natural immunity ' 'to fight COVID-19 disease.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>', 'DOI': '10.2174/26669587-v2-e221209-2022-24', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2022, 12, 9]], 'date-time': '2022-12-09T10:14:32Z', 'timestamp': 1670580872000}, 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/crossmark_policy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'Higher Scores of Ambient Temperature, Sunshine Hours and UV Index are Associated with Lower ' 'COVID-19 Mortality', 'prefix': '10.2174', 'volume': '2', 'author': [{'given': 'Mourad', 'family': 'Errasfa', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '965', 'reference': [ { 'key': 'ref1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Chan JFW, Yuan S, Kok KH, et al. \n' ' A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the ' '2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: A study ' 'of a family cluster. \n' ' Lancet \n' ' 2020; \n' ' 395\n' ' (10223)\n' ' : 514-23.', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9'}, { 'key': 'ref2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, et al. \n' ' A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory ' 'disease in China. \n' ' Nature \n' ' 2020; \n' ' 579\n' ' (7798)\n' ' : 265-9.', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3'}, { 'key': 'ref3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Walls AC, Park YJ, Tortorici A, Wall A, McGuire AT, Veesler D. \n' ' Structure, function, and antigenicity of the ' 'SARSCoV- 2 spike glycoprotein. \n' ' Cell \n' ' 2020; \n' ' 8674\n' ' (20)\n' ' : 30262-2.', 'DOI': '10.1101/2020.02.19.956581'}, { 'key': 'ref4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Verity R, Okell LC, Dorigatti I, et al. \n' ' Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease ' '2019: A model-based analysis. \n' ' Lancet Infect Dis \n' ' 2020; \n' ' 20\n' ' (6)\n' ' : 669-77.', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30243-7'}, { 'key': 'ref5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Cui S, Chen S, Li X, Liu S, Wang F. \n' ' Prevalence of venous thromboembolism in patients ' 'with severe novel coronavirus pneumonia. \n' ' J Thromb Haemost \n' ' 2020; \n' ' 18\n' ' (6)\n' ' : 1421-4.', 'DOI': '10.1111/jth.14830'}, { 'key': 'ref6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Dhar D, Mohanty A. \n' ' Gut microbiota and COVID-19 possible link and ' 'implications. \n' ' Virus Res \n' ' 2020; \n' ' 285\n' ' : 198018.', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198018'}, { 'key': 'ref7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Zuo T, Zhang F, Lui GCY, et al. \n' ' Alterations in gut microbiota of patients with ' 'COVID-19 during time of hospitalization. \n' ' Gastroenterology \n' ' 2020; \n' ' 159\n' ' (3)\n' ' : 944-55.', 'DOI': '10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.048'}, { 'key': 'ref8', 'unstructured': 'Ricardo J. \n' ' COVID-19 cytokine storm: The interplay between ' 'inflammation and coagulation. \n' ' Lancet Respir Med \n' ' 2020; \n' ' (20): \n' ' 30216-2.'}, { 'key': 'ref9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Tobaiqy M, Qashqary M, Al-Dahery S, et al. \n' ' Therapeutic management of patients with COVID-19: A ' 'systematic review. \n' ' Infect Prev Pract \n' ' 2020; \n' ' 2\n' ' (3)\n' ' : 100061.', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.infpip.2020.100061'}, { 'key': 'ref10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Errasfa M. \n' ' Blood hemostasis dysfunction and inflammation in ' 'COVID-19 patients: Viral and host active molecules as therapeutic ' 'targets. \n' ' Open Toxicol J \n' ' 2021; \n' ' 7\n' ' (1)\n' ' : 1-7.', 'DOI': '10.2174/1874340402107010001'}, { 'key': 'ref11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Tsai YL, Lin TL, Chang CJ, et al. \n' ' Probiotics, prebiotics and amelioration of ' 'diseases. \n' ' J Biomed Sci \n' ' 2019; \n' ' 26\n' ' (1)\n' ' : 3.', 'DOI': '10.1186/s12929-018-0493-6'}, { 'key': 'ref12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Errasfa M. \n' ' Magnesium therapeutic potential against COVID-19: ' 'Could it be an “All-in-one” therapy? 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