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Vitamin D level in COVID-19 patients has positive correlations with autophagy and negative correlations with disease severity

Dong et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2024.1388348
May 2024  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 52 COVID-19 patients showing that patients with severe/critical disease had lower levels of vitamin D and autophagy markers ATG7 and BECN1 compared to those with mild or moderate disease. Vitamin D levels had a significant negative correlation with disease severity and a significant positive correlation with autophagy markers.
The potential implications of reduced autophagy in severe COVID-19 include impaired viral clearance: autophagy helps to remove intracellular pathogens - reduced autophagy could lead to increased viral replication and more severe infection; increased inflammation: autophagy helps to regulate inflammatory responses - lower autophagy could contribute to the excessive inflammation and "cytokine storm" seen in severe COVID-19; lung damage: autophagy is important for maintaining the integrity and function of lung cells - reduced autophagy could exacerbate lung injury and the development of ARDS; and tissue damage in other organs: COVID-19 can affect multiple organ systems and impaired autophagy could contribute to injury and dysfunction in the heart, liver, kidneys and other tissues in severe cases.
Dong et al., 9 May 2024, retrospective, China, peer-reviewed, 3 authors, study period December 2022 - March 2023. Contact: gaopeng1234@jlu.edu.cn.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D level in COVID-19 patients has positive correlations with autophagy and negative correlations with disease severity
Hongna Dong, Yuqiu Hao, Peng Gao
Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2024.1388348
Background and Objectives: There is still incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Calcitriol, the main form of vitamin D in serum, regulates immune responses and increases resistance to pathogens, but the mechanism by which it protects against COVID-19 is uncertain. Autophagy has antiviral effects and helps to maintain homeostasis, but its specific role in COVID-19 is also uncertain. Both vitamin D and autophagy have important functions in the lung microenvironment. This study examined the relationship of serum vitamin D and autophagy-related proteins in patients with COVID-19 and evaluated their potential use as biomarkers. Methods: Blood samples from COVID-19 patients at the Second Hospital of Jilin University were collected. The levels of vitamin D, autophagy-related proteins (Becline 1 [BECN1] and autophagy-related 7 [ATG7]), and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-1β) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: We examined 25 patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 and 27 patients with severe/critical COVID-19. The group with severe/critical COVID-19 had more abnormalities in many laboratory indicators, including lower levels of autophagy markers (BECN1 and ATG7) and vitamin D, and higher levels of inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-1β). Partial correlation analysis showed that vitamin D had strong positive correlations with ATG7 (r = 0.819, p < 0.001) and BECN1 (r = 0.900, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that the vitamin D level had significant negative correlations with COVID-19 severity and strong positive correlations with autophagy. These findings enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and provide a theoretical basis for clinical interventions that target autophagy and vitamin D.
Ethics statement The studies involving humans were approved by the Ethics Committee of Second Hospital of Jilin University. The studies were conducted in accordance with the local legislation and institutional requirements. The participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. Author contributions HD: Writing-original draft, Writing-review and editing. YH: Writing-review and editing. PG: Conceptualization, Writing-review and editing. Conflict of interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Publisher's note All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Supplementary material The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2024.1388348/ full#supplementary-material
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This study examined the ' 'relationship of serum vitamin D and autophagy-related proteins in patients with COVID-19 and ' 'evaluated their potential use as ' 'biomarkers.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>Blood ' 'samples from COVID-19 patients at the Second Hospital of Jilin University were collected. The ' 'levels of vitamin D, autophagy-related proteins (Becline 1 [BECN1] and autophagy-related 7 ' '[ATG7]), and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-1β) were measured using enzyme-linked ' 'immunosorbent assays.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>We ' 'examined 25 patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 and 27 patients with severe/critical ' 'COVID-19. The group with severe/critical COVID-19 had more abnormalities in many laboratory ' 'indicators, including lower levels of autophagy markers (BECN1 and ATG7) and vitamin D, and ' 'higher levels of inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-1β). Partial correlation analysis showed ' 'that vitamin D had strong positive correlations with ATG7 (r = 0.819, ' '<jats:italic>p</jats:italic> &amp;lt; 0.001) and BECN1 (r = 0.900, ' '<jats:italic>p</jats:italic> &amp;lt; ' '0.001).</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusion</jats:title><jats:p>Our results ' 'demonstrated that the vitamin D level had significant negative correlations with COVID-19 ' 'severity and strong positive correlations with autophagy. 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Med. Res. Opin.', 'key': 'B3', 'volume': '37', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106239', 'article-title': 'Pulmonary pathology of ARDS in COVID-19: a pathological review for ' 'clinicians', 'author': 'Batah', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '106239', 'journal-title': 'Respir. Med.', 'key': 'B4', 'volume': '176', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1097/MNH.0b013e3282ff64a3', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D and the immune system: role in protection against bacterial ' 'infection', 'author': 'Bikle', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '348', 'journal-title': 'Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens.', 'key': 'B5', 'volume': '17', 'year': '2008'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s11914-022-00732-z', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D regulation of immune function', 'author': 'Bikle', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '186', 'journal-title': 'Curr. Osteoporos. 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Barc.', 'key': 'B23', 'volume': '156', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s11239-020-02174-9', 'article-title': 'Prominent coagulation disorder is closely related to inflammatory ' 'response and could be as a prognostic indicator for ICU patients with ' 'COVID-19', 'author': 'Liu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '825', 'journal-title': 'J. Thromb. Thrombolysis', 'key': 'B24', 'volume': '50', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/ppul.24460', 'article-title': 'Association of vitamin D status with lung function measurements in ' 'children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis', 'author': 'Loukou', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1375', 'journal-title': 'Pediatr. Pulmonol.', 'key': 'B25', 'volume': '55', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa641', 'article-title': 'Prognostic value of C-reactive protein in patients with coronavirus ' '2019', 'author': 'Luo', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2174', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Infect. Dis.', 'key': 'B26', 'volume': '71', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jjcc.2021.12.014', 'article-title': 'Impact of serum lactate dehydrogenase on the short-term prognosis of ' 'COVID-19 with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases', 'author': 'Masumoto', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '501', 'journal-title': 'J. Cardiol.', 'key': 'B27', 'volume': '79', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41598-022-21513-9', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D status and severity of COVID-19', 'author': 'Nielsen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '19823', 'journal-title': 'Sci. Rep.', 'key': 'B28', 'volume': '12', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fimmu.2020.00207', 'article-title': 'Autophagy protects against developing increased lung permeability and ' 'hypoxemia by down regulating inflammasome activity and IL-1β in LPS ' 'plus mechanical ventilation-induced acute lung injury', 'author': 'Nosaka', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '207', 'journal-title': 'Front. 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Med.', 'key': 'B47', 'volume': '15', 'year': '2022'}], 'reference-count': 47, 'references-count': 47, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2024.1388348/full'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': [], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'Vitamin D level in COVID-19 patients has positive correlations with autophagy and negative ' 'correlations with disease severity', 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/crossmark-policy', 'volume': '15'}
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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