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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality, PSM 73% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality, MV, <48hrs 93% Mortality, MV, >48hrs 91% ONS for COVID-19  Chen et al.  EARLY TREATMENT Favors ONS Favors control

Early oral nutritional supplement improves COVID-19 outcomes among hospitalized older patients during the omicron wave

Chen et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2023.112087
May 2023  
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Vitamin A for COVID-19
40th treatment shown to reduce risk in June 2023
*, now known with p = 0.031 from 13 studies.
Lower risk for recovery and cases.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments.
PSM retrospective 1,181 COVID-19 patients ≥60 years old in China, showing significantly lower mortality with a nutritional supplement. Hospitalization time and viral clearance time was improved with earlier initiation of treatment. The supplement contained 28 vitamins and minerals including vitamins A, C, D, B9, and zinc.
This study is excluded in meta analysis: nutritional supplement containing 28 vitamins and minerals.
Study covers vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin B9, and zinc.
risk of death, 72.7% lower, RR 0.27, p = 0.03, treatment 3 of 258 (1.2%), control 11 of 258 (4.3%), NNT 32, propensity score matching.
risk of death, 93.0% lower, OR 0.07, p = 0.003, adjusted per study, <48hrs, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of death, 91.0% lower, OR 0.09, p = 0.005, adjusted per study, >48hrs, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Chen et al., 21 May 2023, retrospective, China, peer-reviewed, mean age 78.0, 7 authors, study period April 2022 - June 2022, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with 27 vitamins and minerals) - results of individual treatments may vary. Contact:,
This PaperVitamin AAll
Early oral nutritional supplement improves COVID-19 outcomes among hospitalized older patients during the omicron wave
Ying Chen, Yinfan Wu, Wei Ran, Jingjue Yuan, Zhangwei Yang, Ph.D Shunjie Chen, Ph.D Ying Wang
Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2023.112087
This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
Conflict of Interest Statement Declaration of Competing Interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
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