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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Death/hospice 38% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation 18% ICU admission 23% Zinc for COVID-19  Carlucci et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with zinc beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 932 patients in the USA Lower death/hospice with zinc (p=0.002) Carlucci et al., J. Med. Microbiol., S.., May 2020 Favors zinc Favors control

Zinc sulfate in combination with a zinc ionophore may improve outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients

Carlucci et al., J. Med. Microbiol., Sep 15, 2020, doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.001250 (date from preprint)
May 2020  
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Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now known with p = 0.0000013 from 44 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 932 patients showing that the addition of zinc to HCQ+AZ reduced mortality / transfer to hospice, ICU admission, and the need for ventilation.
Study covers zinc and HCQ.
risk of death/hospice, 37.7% lower, RR 0.62, p = 0.002, treatment 54 of 411 (13.1%), control 119 of 521 (22.8%), NNT 10, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariate logistic regression.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 18.0% lower, RR 0.82, p = 0.40, treatment 29 of 411 (7.1%), control 62 of 521 (11.9%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariate logistic regression.
risk of ICU admission, 23.5% lower, RR 0.77, p = 0.17, treatment 38 of 411 (9.2%), control 82 of 521 (15.7%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariate logistic regression.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Carlucci et al., 8 May 2020, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
This PaperZincAll
Zinc sulfate in combination with a zinc ionophore may improve outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Philip M Carlucci, Tania Ahuja, Christopher Petrilli, Harish Rajagopalan, Simon Jones, Joseph Rahimian
Journal of Medical Microbiology, doi:10.1099/jmm.0.001250
Introduction. COVID-19 has rapidly emerged as a pandemic infection that has caused significant mortality and economic losses. Potential therapies and prophylaxis against COVID-19 are urgently needed to combat this novel infection. As a result of in vitro evidence suggesting zinc sulphate may be efficacious against COVID-19, our hospitals began using zinc sulphate as add-on therapy to hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. Aim. To compare outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients ordered to receive hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin plus zinc sulphate versus hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone. Methodology. This was a retrospective observational study. Data was collected from medical records for all patients with admission dates ranging from 2 March 2020 through to 11 April 2020. Initial clinical characteristics on presentation, medications given during the hospitalization, and hospital outcomes were recorded. The study included patients admitted to any of four acute care NYU Langone Health Hospitals in New York City. Patients included were admitted to the hospital with at least one positive COVID-19 test and had completed their hospitalization. Patients were excluded from the study if they were never admitted to the hospital or if there was an order for other investigational therapies for COVID-19. Results. Patients taking zinc sulphate in addition to hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (n=411) and patients taking hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone (n=521) did not differ in age, race, sex, tobacco use or relevant comorbidities. The addition of zinc sulphate did not impact the length of hospitalization, duration of ventilation or intensive care unit (ICU) duration. In univariate analyses, zinc sulphate increased the frequency of patients being discharged home, and decreased the need for ventilation, admission to the ICU and mortality or transfer to hospice for patients who were never admitted to the ICU. After adjusting for the time at which zinc sulphate was added to our protocol, an increased frequency of being discharged home (OR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.12-2.09) and reduction in mortality or transfer to hospice among patients who did not require ICU level of care remained significant (OR 0.449,. Conclusion. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that zinc sulphate may play a role in therapeutic management for COVID-19.
Funding information The authors received no specific grant from any funding agency. Conflicts of interest The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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