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Correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D/D3 Deficiency and COVID-19 Disease Severity in Adults from Northern Colorado

Baxter et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14245204, NCT04603677
Dec 2022  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
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Analysis of 131 COVID+ patients and 18 healthy controls, showing COVID-19 severity associated with lower vitamin D levels.
Baxter et al., 7 Dec 2022, USA, peer-reviewed, mean age 57.0, 14 authors, study period July 2020 - March 2021, trial NCT04603677 (history). Contact: (corresponding author).
This PaperVitamin DAll
Correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D/D3 Deficiency and COVID-19 Disease Severity in Adults from Northern Colorado
Bridget A Baxter, Michaela G Ryan, Stephanie M Lavergne, Sophia Stromberg, Kailey Berry, Madison Tipton, Nicole Natter, Nikiah Nudell, Kim Mcfann, Julie Dunn, Tracy L Webb, Michael Armstrong, Nichole Reisdorph, Elizabeth P Ryan
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14245204
Vitamin D deficiency is common in the United States and leads to altered immune function, including T cell and macrophage activity that may impact responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study investigated 131 adults with a history of a positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal PCR and 18 adults with no COVID-19 diagnosis that were recruited from the community or hospital into the Northern Colorado Coronavirus Biorepository (NoCo-COBIO). Participants consented to enrollment for a period of 6 months and provided biospecimens at multiple visits for longitudinal analysis. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were quantified by LC-MS/MS at the initial visit (n = 149) and after 4 months (n = 89). Adults were classified as deficient (<30 nM or <12 ng/mL), insufficient (<30-50 nM or 12-20 ng/mL), or optimal (50-75 nM or >20 ng/mL) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D status. Fisher's exact test demonstrated an association between disease severity, gender, and body mass index (BMI) at baseline. Mixed model analyses with Tukey-Kramer were used for longitudinal analysis according to BMI. Sixty-nine percent (n = 103) of the entire cohort had optimal levels of total 25(OH)D, 22% (n = 32) had insufficient levels, and 9% (n = 14) had deficent levels. Participants with severe disease (n = 37) had significantly lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (total 25(OH)D) when compared to adults with mild disease (p = 0.006) or no COVID-19 diagnosis (p = 0.007). There was 44% of the cohort with post-acute sequalae of COVID-19 (PASC) as defined by experiencing at least one of the following symptoms after 60 days' post-infection: fatigue, dyspnea, joint pain, chest pain, forgetfulness or absent-mindedness, confusion, or difficulty breathing. While significant differences were detected in 25-hydroxyvitamin D status by sex and BMI, there were no correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D for those without and without PASC. This longitudinal study of COVID-19 survivors demonstrates an important association between sex, BMI, and disease severity for 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency during acute stages of infection, yet it is not clear whether supplementation efforts would influence long term outcomes such as developing PASC.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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