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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Severe case 30% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D  Arabadzhiyska et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 100 patients in Bulgaria (October - December 2021) Lower severe cases with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.16) Arabadzhiyska et al., Bratislava Medic.., Feb 2023 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Serum vitamin D levels and inflammatory status in COVID-19 patients

Arabadzhiyska et al., Bratislava Medical Journal, doi:10.4149/bll_2023_069
Feb 2023  
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Retrospective 100 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Bulgaria and 40 healthy controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients, and lower levels in patients with severe vs. moderate disease.
This is the 160th of 184 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 712 vigintillion).
risk of severe case, 29.8% lower, RR 0.70, p = 0.16, high D levels (≥20ng/ml) 16 of 44 (36.4%), low D levels (<20ng/ml) 29 of 56 (51.8%), NNT 6.5.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Arabadzhiyska et al., 28 Feb 2023, retrospective, Bulgaria, peer-reviewed, mean age 53.7, 2 authors, study period October 2021 - December 2021.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
Serum vitamin D levels and inflammatory status in COVID-19 patients
Desislava Arabadzhiyska, Tanya Deneva
Bratislava Medical Journal, doi:10.4149/bll_2023_069
OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) is characterized by a heterogeneous clinical presentation, a complex pathophysiology and a wide range of laboratory fi ndings, depending on disease severity. BACKGROUND: We studied some laboratory parameters in correlation with vitamin D status representing the infl ammatory state in hospitalized COVID-19 patients on admission. METHODS: The study included 100 COVID-19 patients with moderate (n=55) and severe (n=45) form of the disease. Complete blood count and differential blood count, routine biochemical parameters, C-reactive protein and serum procalcitonin, ferritin, human IL-6 and serum vitamin D (measured as 25-OH vitamin D) concentrations, were performed. RESULTS: According to the severity of the disease, patients with severe form had signifi cantly lower serum vitamin D (16.54±6.51 ng/ml vs 20.37±5.63 ng/ml, p=0.0012), higher serum interleukin-6 (41.24±28.46 pg/ml vs. 24.75±16.28 pg/ml, p=0.0003), C-reactive p rotein (101.49± 57.15 mg/l vs 74.43±42.99 mg/l, p=0.0044), ferritin (969.89±338.37 ng/ml vs 845.96±359.91 ng/ml, p=0.0423) and LDH (1050.53±369.11 U/l vs 905.31±335.57 U/l, p=0.0222) compared to those with moderate form of the disease. CONCLUSION: The presented data provide a relationship between increased infl ammatory laboratory markers, low vitamin D levels and disease severity in Fig. 3, Ref. 32).
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