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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 3% Improvement Relative Risk Sleep for COVID-19  Ahmadi et al.  Prophylaxis Is better sleep beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 267,308 patients in the United Kingdom No significant difference in mortality Ahmadi et al., Brain, Behavior, and Im.., Aug 2021 Favors good sleep Favors control

Lifestyle risk factors and infectious disease mortality, including COVID-19, among middle aged and older adults: Evidence from a community-based cohort study in the United Kingdom

Ahmadi et al., Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2021.04.022
Aug 2021  
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Sleep for COVID-19
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*, now known with p = 0.0000000019 from 15 studies.
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No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 468,569 adults in the UK, showing no significant difference in COVID-19 mortality based on sleep quality.
Study covers exercise, sleep, and diet.
risk of death, 3.0% lower, RR 0.97, p = 0.91, adjusted per study, good vs. poor, model 2, multivariable.
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Ahmadi et al., 31 Aug 2021, retrospective, United Kingdom, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
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Lifestyle risk factors and infectious disease mortality, including COVID-19, among middle aged and older adults: Evidence from a community-based cohort study in the United Kingdom
Matthew N Ahmadi, Bo-Huei Huang, Elif Inan-Eroglu, Mark Hamer, Emmanuel Stamatakis
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2021.04.022
In this community-based cohort study, we investigated the relationship between combinations of modifiable lifestyle risk factors and infectious disease mortality. Participants were 468,569 men and women (56.5 ± 8.1, 54.6% women) residing in the United Kingdom. Lifestyle indexes included traditional and emerging lifestyle risk factors based on health guidelines and best practice recommendations for: physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep quality, diet quality, alcohol consumption, and smoking status. The main outcome was mortality from infectious diseases, including pneumonia, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Meeting public health guidelines or best practice recommendations among combinations of lifestyle risk factors was inversely associated with mortality. Hazard ratios ranged between 0.26 (0.23-0.30) to 0.69 (0.60-0.79) for infectious disease and pneumonia. Among participants with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or cancer, hazard ratios ranged between 0.30 (0.25-0.34) to 0.73 (0.60-0.89). COVID-19 mortality risk ranged between 0.42 (0.28-0.63) to 0.75 (0.49-1.13). We found a beneficial dose-response association with a higher lifestyle index against mortality that was consistent across sex, age, BMI, and socioeconomic status. There was limited evidence of synergistic interactions between most lifestyle behaviour pairs, suggesting that the dose-response relationship among different lifestyle behaviours is not greater than the sum of the risk induced by each behaviour. Improvements in lifestyle risk factors and meeting public health guidelines or best practice recommendations could be used as an ancillary measure to ameliorate infectious disease mortality.
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