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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 55% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation 56% ICU admission 34% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Afaghi et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 646 patients in Iran Lower mortality (p=0.002) and ventilation (p<0.0001) Afaghi et al., The Tohoku J. Experimen.., Oct 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Prevalence and Clinical Outcomes of Vitamin D Deficiency in COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients: A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis

Afaghi et al., The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, doi:10.1620/tjem.255.127
Oct 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 119 studies, recognized in 7 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 646 COVID-19+ hospitalized patients in Iran, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
This is the 99th of 192 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 611 vigintillion).
risk of death, 55.0% lower, RR 0.45, p = 0.002, high D levels 97 of 537 (18.1%), low D levels 51 of 109 (46.8%), NNT 3.5, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >20ng/mL, multivariate.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 55.9% lower, RR 0.44, p < 0.001, high D levels 89 of 537 (16.6%), low D levels 41 of 109 (37.6%), NNT 4.8, >20ng/mL, unadjusted.
risk of ICU admission, 34.1% lower, RR 0.66, p < 0.001, high D levels 211 of 537 (39.3%), low D levels 65 of 109 (59.6%), NNT 4.9, >20ng/mL, unadjusted.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Afaghi et al., 12 Oct 2021, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Prevalence and Clinical Outcomes of Vitamin D Deficiency in COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients: A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis
Siamak Afaghi, Farzad Esmaeili Tarki, Fatemeh Sadat Rahimi, Sara Besharat, Shayda Mirhaidari, Anita Karimi, Vascular Nasser Malekpour Alamdari
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, doi:10.1620/tjem.255.127
Vitamin D attenuates inflammatory responses to viral respiratory infections. Hence, vitamin D deficiency may be a highly significant prognostic factor for severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. To evaluate the complications and mortality in different vitamin D status groups in COVID-19 hospitalized patients, we conducted this retrospective study on 646 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Shahid Modarres Hospital, Tehran, Iran from 16th March 2020 until 25th February 2021. Overall, patients with vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency and sufficiency were 16.9%, 43.6% and 39.5%, respectively. The presence of comorbidity, length of hospitalization, ICU admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation requirement and overall complications were significantly more in patients with vitamin D deficiency (p-value < 0.001). 46.8% (51/109) of vitamin D deficient patients died due to the disease, whilst the mortality rate among insufficient and sufficient vitamin D groups was 29.4% (83/282) and 5.5% (14/255), respectively. In univariate analysis, age > 60 years (odds ratio (OR) = 6.1), presence of comorbidity (OR = 10.7), insufficient vitamin D status (OR = 7.2), and deficient vitamin D status (OR = 15.1) were associated with increase in COVID-19 mortality (p-value < 0.001). Finally, the multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities indicated vitamin D deficiency as an independent risk factor for mortality (OR = 3.3, p-value = 0.002). Vitamin D deficiency is a strong risk factor for mortality and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vitamin D supplementation may be able to prevent or improve the prognosis of COVID-19 during this pandemic.
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