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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Prevalence and Clinical Outcomes of Vitamin D Deficiency in COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients: A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis

Afaghi et al., The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, doi:10.1620/tjem.255.127
Oct 2021  
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Mortality 55% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation 56% ICU admission 34% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Afaghi et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 646 patients in Iran Lower mortality (p=0.002) and ventilation (p<0.0001) c19early.org Afaghi et al., The Tohoku J. Experimen.., Oct 2021 Favorsvitamin D Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 646 COVID-19+ hospitalized patients in Iran, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
This is the 99th of 199 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 835,162 vigintillion).
risk of death, 55.0% lower, RR 0.45, p = 0.002, high D levels 97 of 537 (18.1%), low D levels 51 of 109 (46.8%), NNT 3.5, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >20ng/mL, multivariate.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 55.9% lower, RR 0.44, p < 0.001, high D levels 89 of 537 (16.6%), low D levels 41 of 109 (37.6%), NNT 4.8, >20ng/mL, unadjusted.
risk of ICU admission, 34.1% lower, RR 0.66, p < 0.001, high D levels 211 of 537 (39.3%), low D levels 65 of 109 (59.6%), NNT 4.9, >20ng/mL, unadjusted.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Afaghi et al., 12 Oct 2021, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Prevalence and Clinical Outcomes of Vitamin D Deficiency in COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients: A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis
Siamak Afaghi, Farzad Esmaeili Tarki, Fatemeh Sadat Rahimi, Sara Besharat, Shayda Mirhaidari, Anita Karimi, Vascular Nasser Malekpour Alamdari
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, doi:10.1620/tjem.255.127
Vitamin D attenuates inflammatory responses to viral respiratory infections. Hence, vitamin D deficiency may be a highly significant prognostic factor for severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. To evaluate the complications and mortality in different vitamin D status groups in COVID-19 hospitalized patients, we conducted this retrospective study on 646 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Shahid Modarres Hospital, Tehran, Iran from 16th March 2020 until 25th February 2021. Overall, patients with vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency and sufficiency were 16.9%, 43.6% and 39.5%, respectively. The presence of comorbidity, length of hospitalization, ICU admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation requirement and overall complications were significantly more in patients with vitamin D deficiency (p-value < 0.001). 46.8% (51/109) of vitamin D deficient patients died due to the disease, whilst the mortality rate among insufficient and sufficient vitamin D groups was 29.4% (83/282) and 5.5% (14/255), respectively. In univariate analysis, age > 60 years (odds ratio (OR) = 6.1), presence of comorbidity (OR = 10.7), insufficient vitamin D status (OR = 7.2), and deficient vitamin D status (OR = 15.1) were associated with increase in COVID-19 mortality (p-value < 0.001). Finally, the multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities indicated vitamin D deficiency as an independent risk factor for mortality (OR = 3.3, p-value = 0.002). Vitamin D deficiency is a strong risk factor for mortality and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vitamin D supplementation may be able to prevent or improve the prognosis of COVID-19 during this pandemic.
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' '[Epub ahead of print].', 'DOI': '10.1007/s40495-020-00216-7'}, { 'key': '38', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Yamshchikov, A.V., Desai, N.S., Blumberg, H.M., Ziegler, T.R. &amp; ' 'Tangpricha, V.(2009) Vitamin D for treatment and prevention of ' 'infectious diseases: a systematic review of randomized controlled ' 'trials. <i>Endocr. Pract.</i>, 15, 438-449.', 'DOI': '10.4158/EP09101.ORR'}, { 'key': '39', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Yao, H., Lu, X., Chen, Q., Xu, K., Chen, Y., Cheng, L., Liu, F., Wu, Z., ' 'Wu, H., Jin, C., Zheng, M., Wu, N., Jiang, C. &amp; Li, L.(2020a) ' 'Patient-derived mutations impact pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2. ' '<i>medRxiv</i>, doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.14.20060160.', 'DOI': '10.1101/2020.04.14.20060160'}, { 'key': '40', 'unstructured': 'Yao, X.H., Li, T.Y., He, Z.C., Ping, Y.F., Liu, H.W., Yu, S.C., Mou, ' 'H.M., Wang, L.H., Zhang, H.R., Fu, W.J., Luo, T., Liu, F., Guo, Q.N., ' 'Chen, C., Xiao, H.L., et al. (2020b) A pathological report of three ' 'COVID-19 cases by minimal invasive autopsies. <i>Zhonghua Bing Li Xue ' 'Za Zhi</i>, 49, 411-417.'}], 'container-title': 'The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjem/255/2/255_127/_pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 16]], 'date-time': '2021-10-16T03:30:50Z', 'timestamp': 1634355050000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjem/255/2/255_127/_article'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021]]}, 'references-count': 40, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '2', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021]]}}, 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.255.127', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['0040-8727', '1349-3329'], 'subject': ['General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology', 'General Medicine'], 'container-title-short': 'Tohoku J. Exp. Med.', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021]]}}
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