Relationship Between Dairy Intake and Hospitalization Risk and Disease Severity in Patients With COVID-19
Clinical Nutrition Research, doi:10.7762/cnr.2023.12.4.283
The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy intake was associated with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease and the probability of hospitalization of patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 141 patients with COVID-19 with an average age of 46.23 ± 15.88 years. The number of men (52.5%) participating in this study was higher than that of women. The association between dairy intake and COVID-19 was evaluated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. The risk of hospitalization in the highest tertile of dairy intake was 31% lower than in the lowest tertile (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-1.25, p trend = 0.023). Higher milk and yogurt intake was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalization due to COVID-19. Patients in the third tertiles were about 65% (p for trend = 0.014) and 12% (p for trend = 0.050) less likely to be hospitalized than those in the first tertile, respectively. Dairy consumption, especially low-fat ones, was associated with a lower risk of hospitalization due to COVID-19 and lower severity of COVID-19.
Conflict of Interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Clinical parameters In this study, for measuring the height a wall-mounted stadiometer was used with 0.1 cm accuracy, also for weight measuring a digital scale with an accuracy of 0.1 kg was used. We calculate body mass index (BMI) by dividing weight (in kg) by height (in m 2 ). Biochemical parameters measured included white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP). WBCs were measured by microscopy method with a BA310 microscope (MOTIC, Barcelona, Spain). Lymphocytes and neutrophils were assessed by Mindary BC-6800 and NLR was calculated accordingly. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method was applied to measure IL-6 (Diaclone, Besançon, France) and CRP (Pars Azmoon Inc., Karaj, Iran).
Statistical analysis The data were analyzed by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 20.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level that was considered statistically significant was < 0.05. For assessing the normality of variables, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis was used. Quantitative data were reported as mean ± standard deviation or median (25-75), interquartile range and qualitative data as a percentage. Linear regression analysis was applied to comparing the basic characteristics of participants based on dairy intake tertiles. Logistic regression was carried out to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence..
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