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Relationship Between Dairy Intake and Hospitalization Risk and Disease Severity in Patients With COVID-19

Abbas-Hashemi et al., Clinical Nutrition Research, doi:10.7762/cnr.2023.12.4.283
Oct 2023  
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Hospitalization 31% Improvement Relative Risk Diet for COVID-19  Abbas-Hashemi et al.  Prophylaxis Is a healthy diet beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 141 patients in Iran Lower hospitalization with healthier diets (not stat. sig., p=0.23) c19early.org Abbas-Hashemi et al., Clinical Nutriti.., Oct 2023 Favorshealthy diet Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Diet for COVID-19
22nd treatment shown to reduce risk in June 2021
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 28 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 141 COVID-19 patients showing that higher dairy intake was associated with lower risk of hospitalization. The risk of hospitalization was 31% lower in the highest tertile of dairy intake compared to the lowest, after adjustment for confounders (p trend = 0.023). Dairy is a good source of several nutrients shown to be beneficial including vitamins A, B12, D, zinc, and probiotics.
risk of hospitalization, 31.0% lower, OR 0.69, p = 0.23, higher quality diet 48, lower quality diet 46, T3 vs. T1, model 3, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Abbas-Hashemi et al., 27 Oct 2023, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, mean age 50.2, 10 authors. Contact: zahrayari_nut@yahoo.com.
This PaperDietAll
Relationship Between Dairy Intake and Hospitalization Risk and Disease Severity in Patients With COVID-19
Seyed Ali Abbas-Hashemi, Zahra Yari, Samira Soltanieh, Marieh Salavatizadeh, Sara Karimi, Sussan K Ardestani, Mohammadreza Salehi, Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi, Tooba Ghazanfari, Azita Hekmatdoost
Clinical Nutrition Research, doi:10.7762/cnr.2023.12.4.283
The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy intake was associated with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease and the probability of hospitalization of patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 141 patients with COVID-19 with an average age of 46.23 ± 15.88 years. The number of men (52.5%) participating in this study was higher than that of women. The association between dairy intake and COVID-19 was evaluated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. The risk of hospitalization in the highest tertile of dairy intake was 31% lower than in the lowest tertile (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-1.25, p trend = 0.023). Higher milk and yogurt intake was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalization due to COVID-19. Patients in the third tertiles were about 65% (p for trend = 0.014) and 12% (p for trend = 0.050) less likely to be hospitalized than those in the first tertile, respectively. Dairy consumption, especially low-fat ones, was associated with a lower risk of hospitalization due to COVID-19 and lower severity of COVID-19.
Conflict of Interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Clinical parameters In this study, for measuring the height a wall-mounted stadiometer was used with 0.1 cm accuracy, also for weight measuring a digital scale with an accuracy of 0.1 kg was used. We calculate body mass index (BMI) by dividing weight (in kg) by height (in m 2 ). Biochemical parameters measured included white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP). WBCs were measured by microscopy method with a BA310 microscope (MOTIC, Barcelona, Spain). Lymphocytes and neutrophils were assessed by Mindary BC-6800 and NLR was calculated accordingly. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method was applied to measure IL-6 (Diaclone, Besançon, France) and CRP (Pars Azmoon Inc., Karaj, Iran). Statistical analysis The data were analyzed by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 20.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level that was considered statistically significant was < 0.05. For assessing the normality of variables, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis was used. Quantitative data were reported as mean ± standard deviation or median (25-75), interquartile range and qualitative data as a percentage. Linear regression analysis was applied to comparing the basic characteristics of participants based on dairy intake tertiles. Logistic regression was carried out to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence..
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'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://e-cnr.org/pdf/10.7762/cnr.2023.12.4.283', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://e-cnr.org/DOIx.php?id=10.7762/cnr.2023.12.4.283', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://e-cnr.org/DOIx.php?id=10.7762/cnr.2023.12.4.283', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 11, 3]], 'date-time': '2023-11-03T07:29:47Z', 'timestamp': 1698996587000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://e-cnr.org/DOIx.php?id=10.7762/cnr.2023.12.4.283'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023]]}, 'references-count': 33, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '4', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023]]}}, 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.7762/cnr.2023.12.4.283', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2287-3732', '2287-3740'], 'subject': ['General Earth and Planetary Sciences', 'General Environmental Science'], 'container-title-short': 'Clin Nutr Res', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023]]}, 'assertion': [ { 'value': '2023-05-06', 'name': 'received', 'label': 'Received', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}, { 'value': '2023-09-16', 'name': 'revised', 'label': 'Revised', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}, { 'value': '2023-09-24', 'name': 'accepted', 'label': 'Accepted', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}, { 'value': '2023-10-27', 'name': 'published_online', 'label': 'Published online', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}, { 'value': 'Copyright © 2023. The Korean Society of Clinical Nutrition', 'name': 'copyright', 'label': 'Copyright', 'group': {'name': 'Copyright_and_licensing', 'label': 'Copyright and Licensing'}}, { 'value': 'This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative ' 'Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ' '(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted ' 'non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the ' 'original work is properly cited.', 'name': 'license', 'label': 'License', 'explanation': {'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/'}, 'group': {'name': 'Copyright_and_licensing', 'label': 'Copyright and Licensing'}}]}
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