Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All zinc studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchZincZinc (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Novel Protocol Using a Comprehensive Training ‘N’ Treatment (TNT) Approach Rapidly Reverses Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Loss of Taste and Smell Induced by SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Young et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/
Mar 2023  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now known with p = 0.0000013 from 44 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 5 patients in the USA, showing 100% recovery of post-COVID-19 taste and smell disorders with a treatment protocol including zinc, vitamin A, B-complex, vitamin D, and alpha lipoic acid in addition to saline nasal irrigation, fluticasone spray, nerve stimulation exercises, and repeated olfactory-gustatory training.
Young et al., 21 Mar 2023, retrospective, USA, preprint, 14 authors. Contact:
This PaperZincAll
Novel Protocol Using a Comprehensive Training ‘N’ Treatment (TNT) Approach Rapidly Reverses Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Loss of Taste and Smell Induced by SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Nicholas A Young, Caralee Skaggs, Frances Tran, Sara Murray, Montana Kay Lara, Trevor H Wolf, Tamiem Popal, Keighley Reisenauer, Nikki Osgood, Ikeca Betzner, Gregg Britt, Jennifer Pena, Eva Gordon, Robert Simon
Infection with SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19 and has a well-established set of clinical symptoms. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction are among the non-life threatening sequalae observed with both acute and chronic SARS-CoV-2 infection. This can lead to the loss of taste and smell and has been observed in large subsets of COVID-19 patients. Although non-life threatening, loss of taste and smell can contribute to decreased quality of life and prevent su cient nutrient intake, which may negatively affect prognosis and recovery. Despite progress in the treatment of other symptoms caused by COVID-19, there are currently no standardized treatment protocols to mitigate loss of taste and smell caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and most approaches thus far have evaluated sensory training and regimen-based treatment strategies independently. In this retrospective case series, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, combined treatment protocol for COVID-19-induced taste and smell dysfunction using olfactory and gustatory training in combination with vitamins and supplements, nasal irrigations, nerve stimulation exercises, and anti-in ammatory prophylaxis. Acutely infected patients with COVID-19-related loss of taste and smell were given a daily regimen of zinc, vitamin A, B-complex, vitamin D, and alpha lipoic acid in addition to saline nasal irrigation, uticasone spray, nerve stimulation exercises, and repeated olfactory-gustatory training. Triamcinalone paste, theophylline, and prednisone were included daily with the observation of partial recovery. At two timepoints over approximately 20-37 days of treatment, taste and smell scores were quanti ed based on detection of agents included on each sensory training panel. Following this novel and comprehensive "Training 'N' Treatment" (TNT) protocol, every patient exhibited a complete recovery of taste and smell. Given the potential to provide relief to the many people with olfactory and gustatory dysfunction following SARS-CoV-2 infection, the effectiveness of this protocol warrants validation in a larger study.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST The authors declare no con ict of interest.
Bae, Kim, Mini-Review on the Roles of Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and Selenium in the Immune System against COVID-19, Molecules
Borsetto, Self-reported alteration of sense of smell or taste in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis on 3563 patients, Rhinology
Brann, Non-neuronal expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes in the olfactory system suggests mechanisms underlying COVID-19-associated anosmia, Sci Adv
Butowt, Bartheld, Anosmia in COVID-19: Underlying Mechanisms and Assessment of an Olfactory Route to Brain Infection, Neuroscientist
Caponio, Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection with Ageusia after Two mRNA Vaccine Doses, Int J Environ Res Public Health
De Groot, Vivanti, The frequency of nutrition impact symptoms and reduced oral intake among consecutive COVID-19 patients from an Australian health service, Br J Community Nurs
De Melo, COVID-19-related anosmia is associated with viral persistence and in ammation in human olfactory epithelium and brain infection in hamsters, Sci Transl Med
Doty, Treatments for smell and taste disorders: A critical review, Handb Clin Neurol
Doyle, Human Type II Taste Cells Express Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 and Are Infected by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Am J Pathol
Dragomanova, Therapeutic Potential of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in Viral Infections, including COVID-19, Antioxidants
Eslami, SARS-CoV-2: Receptor and Co-receptor Tropism Probability, Curr Microbiol
Finger, ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves, Science
Gagnier, The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case reporting guideline development, BMJ Case Rep
Ganjaei, Variability in Retronasal Odor Identi cation Among Patients With Chronic Rhinosinusitis, Am J Rhinol Allergy
Gustafsson, Fredholm, Hedqvist, Theophylline interferes with the modulatory role of endogenous adenosine on cholinergic neurotransmission in guinea pig ileum, Acta Physiol Scand
Huart, Systemic corticosteroids in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related smell dysfunction: an international view, Int Forum Allergy Rhinol
Hummel, Intranasal vitamin A is bene cial in post-infectious olfactory loss, Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
Hura, Treatment of post-viral olfactory dysfunction: an evidence-based review with recommendations, Int Forum Allergy Rhinol
Huttenbrink, Disorders of the sense of smell and taste
Kanjanaumporn, Smell and taste dysfunction in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: A review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment options, Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol
Karthaka, Baliga, Walvekar, Clinical pro le and outcomes of COVID-19 positive patients -A cross sectional study, J Family Med Prim Care
Khani, Potential pharmacologic treatments for COVID-19 smell and taste loss: A comprehensive review, Eur J Pharmacol
Kuchipudi, Sialic Acid Receptors: The Key to Solving the Enigma of Zoonotic Virus Spillover, Viruses
Laviano, Koverech, Zanetti, Nutrition support in the time of SARS-CoV-2, COVID
Leaf, Ginde, Vitamin D3 to Treat COVID-19: Different Disease, Same Answer, JAMA
Lechien, Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-tomoderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study, Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
Li, Xue, Xu, Involvement of the Nervous System in SARS-CoV-2 Infection, Neurotox Res
Mehraeen, Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a review of current evidence, Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
Meinhardt, Olfactory transmucosal SARS-CoV-2 invasion as a port of central nervous system entry in individuals with COVID-19, Nat Neurosci
Mullol, The Loss of Smell and Taste in the COVID-19 Outbreak: a Tale of Many Countries, Curr Allergy Asthma Rep
Najjar, Central nervous system complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection: integrative concepts of pathophysiology and case reports, J Neuroin ammation
Neta, Pathophysiology and possible treatments for olfactory-gustatory disorders in patients affected by COVID-19, Curr Res Pharmacol Drug Discov
Nikodijevic, Klein, Adenosine stimulates adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate accumulation in rat pinealocytes: evidence for a role for adenosine in pineal neurotransmission, Endocrinology
O'byrne, Interventions for the treatment of persistent post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction, Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Othman, Olfactory dysfunction as a post-infectious symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection, Ann Med Surg (Lond)
Parma, More Than Smell-COVID-19 Is Associated With Severe Impairment of Smell, Taste, and Chemesthesis, Chem Senses
Payne, Kronenbuerger, Wong, Gustatory Testing
Rawson, Lamantia, A speculative essay on retinoic acid regulation neural stem cells in the developing and aging olfactory system, Exp Gerontol
Reden, Olfactory function in patients with postinfectious and posttraumatic smell disorders before and after treatment with vitamin A: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, Laryngoscope
Reiter, Subjective smell and taste changes during the COVID-19 pandemic: Short term recovery, Am J Otolaryngol
Santaolalla, Association Between Vitamin D and Novel SARS-CoV-2 Respiratory Dysfunction -A Scoping Review of Current Evidence and Its Implication for COVID-19 Pandemic, Front Physiol
Seo, Lee, Treatment and Prognosis of COVID-19 Associated Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunctions, J Pers Med
Shakoor, Be well: A potential role for vitamin B in COVID-19, Maturitas
Singh, Jain, Parveen, The outcome of uticasone nasal spray on anosmia and triamcinolone oral paste in dysgeusia in COVID-19 patients, Am J Otolaryngol
Speth, Olfactory Dysfunction and Sinonasal Symptomatology in COVID-19: Prevalence, Severity, Timing, and Associated Characteristics, Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
Stankevice, Fjaeldstad, Ovesen, Isolated taste disorders in patients referred to a avor clinic with taste and smell loss, Brain Behav
Tenforde, Symptom Duration and Risk Factors for Delayed Return to Usual Health Among Outpatients with COVID-19 in a Multistate Health Care Systems Network -United States, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Vaira, Olfactory epithelium histopathological ndings in long-term coronavirus disease 2019 related anosmia, J Laryngol Otol
Wang, In ammation and taste disorders: mechanisms in taste buds, Ann N Y Acad Sci
Xu, High expression of ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV on the epithelial cells of oral mucosa, Int J Oral Sci
Yagi, The role of zinc in the treatment of taste disorders, Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop