Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All sodium bicarbonate studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchSodium BicarbonateSodium Bicarb.. (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Case reports of observed significant improvement in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 and maximum ventilatory support after inhalation of sodium bicarbonate

Wardeh et al., Journal of Clinical Intensive Care and Medicine, doi:10.29328/journal.jcicm.1001029
May 2020  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
37th treatment shown to reduce risk in May 2022
*, now with p = 0.00015 from 7 studies.
Lower risk for mortality, hospitalization, and recovery.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 77 treatments.
Case series of four ventilated COVID-19 patients treated with sodium bicarbonate inhalation, all showing clinical and radiological improvement, with 2 patients extubated within 24-72 hours.
Wardeh et al., 19 May 2020, China, peer-reviewed, 3 authors. Contact:,
This PaperSodium Bicarb..All
Abstract: Case Report More Information Case reports of observed significant improvement in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 and maximum ventilatory support after inhalation of sodium bicarbonate *Address for Correspondence: Anas Wardeh, Department of Critical Care Medicine, Uniontown Hospital, Uniontown, PA, USA, Tel: 508-479-4213; Email:; Wardeh A*, Conklin J and Ko M The emergence of COVID-19 worldwide in an unprecedented pandemic. COVID-19 has a signi icant mortality, mostly from acute lung injury. We reviewed the available literature from China and Europe in regard to the behavior of SARS-Cov2 and ability to adhere to the cell wall [1,2]. The evidence based literature describes three component for the virus to grant entry to the target cells including Cathepsin B/L (the viral cap protein needed for initial connectivity to the cell wall), the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and a low PH environment to allow the irst connectivity of the virus to the cell wall [3]. The goal of our Case study was to prevent SARS- SARS-Cov2 from entering target cells by raising the airways PH using sodium bicarbonate inhalation. The sodium Bicarbonate inhalation (4.2% concentration) has been used safely in Cystic ibrosis (CF) patients with inspissated mucoid impaction [3,4] and in chloride inhalation toxicity by opposing the effect of the low PH induced by the insulting agent [4,5]. It has not been administered for COVID -19 patients particularly prior to this study. Methods Four patients required mechanical ventilation due to COVID-19 pneumonia. All patients have proven positive COVID-19 RNA collected from the airway’s secretions. Each one of the patients received inhaled 4.2% sodium bicarbonate as a salvage therapy. All four patients had severe adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and required 100 % Fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2). Due to severe hypoxia despite 100% FIO2, these patients were placed on Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 15 to maintain their Oxygen saturation at 87% at minimum. Also, a standard PEEP of 15 was used throughout the process to keep the alveoli patent to How to cite this article: Wardeh A, Conklin J, Ko M. Case reports of observed significant improvement in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 and maximum ventilatory support after inhalation of sodium bicarbonate. J Clin Intensive Care Med. 2020; 5: 016-019. DOI: 10.29328/journal.jcicm.1001029 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Uniontown Hospital, Uniontown, PA, USA
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2023, 1, 29]], 'date-time': '2023-01-29T12:11:14Z', 'timestamp': 1674994274802}, 'update-to': [ { 'updated': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 5, 19]], 'date-time': '2020-05-19T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1589846400000}, 'DOI': '10.29328/journal.jcicm.1001029', 'type': 'new_edition', 'label': 'New edition'}], 'reference-count': 9, 'publisher': 'Heighten Science Publications Corporation', 'issue': '1', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2013, 11, 25]], 'date-time': '2013-11-25T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1385337600000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': ''}, { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2016, 4, 18]], 'date-time': '2016-04-18T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1460937600000}, 'content-version': 'am', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': ''}], 'content-domain': {'domain': [''], 'crossmark-restriction': True}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2020, 5, 19]]}, 'DOI': '10.29328/journal.jcicm.1001029', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2020, 5, 26]], 'date-time': '2020-05-26T05:40:16Z', 'timestamp': 1590471616000}, 'page': '015-019', 'update-policy': '', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 5, 'title': 'Case reports of observed significant improvement in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 and ' 'maximum ventilatory support after inhalation of sodium bicarbonate', 'prefix': '10.29328', 'volume': '5', 'author': [ {'given': 'A', 'family': 'Wardeh', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'J', 'family': 'Conklin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'M', 'family': 'Ko', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '11877', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2020, 5, 19]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': 'ref0', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': '1. Chu, V. McElroy, L. Chu, V. Bauman, B. Whittaker, G. The Avian ' 'Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis undergoes direct low PH dependent ' 'Fusion activation during entry into the host cells. J Virol. 2006; 80: ' '3180-3188. PubMed:', 'DOI': '10.1128/JVI.80.7.3180-3188.2006'}, { 'key': 'ref1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': '2. Yong ZY, Huang Y, Ganesh L, Leung K, Kong wp. et al. pH-Dependent ' 'Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Is Mediated by ' 'the Spike Glycoprotein and Enhanced by Dendritic Cell Transfer through ' 'DC-SIGN. J Virol. 2004; 78: 5642-5650. PubMed: ' '', 'DOI': '10.1128/JVI.78.11.5642-5650.2004'}, { 'key': 'ref2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': '3. McShane D, Davies JC, Davies MG, Bush A, Geddes DM, et al. Airway ' 'surface PH in subjects with cystic fibrosis. Eur Respir J. 2003; 21: ' '37-42. PubMed:', 'DOI': '10.1183/09031936.03.00027603'}, { 'key': 'ref3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': '4. Gomez CCS, Parazzi PLF, Clinckspoor KJ, Mauch RM, Pessine FBT, et al, ' 'safety, tolerability and effectes of sodium bicarbonate inhalation in ' 'cystic fibrosis. Clin Drug Investig. 2019; 40: 105-117. PubMed: ' '', 'DOI': '10.1007/s40261-019-00861-x'}, { 'key': 'ref4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': '5. Aslan S, Kandiş H, Akgun M, Cakir Z, Inandi T, et al. The effect of ' 'nebulized sodium bicarbonate treatment on RADS patients due to chlorine ' 'gas inhalation. Inhal. Tox. 2006; 18: 895-900. PubMed. ' '', 'DOI': '10.1080/08958370600822615'}, { 'key': 'ref5', 'unstructured': '6. NIH NHLBI ARDS clinical network, mechanical ventilation protocol ' 'summary, 2017.'}, { 'key': 'ref6', 'unstructured': '7. Kis A. Toth L, Kunos L, Gyorgy L, Wanner A. The effect of airway ' 'alkalinization by nebulized sodium bicarbonate on airway blood flow. ' 'European Res. Journal. 2012; 40: P2143.'}, { 'key': 'ref7', 'unstructured': '8. Chinese SARS Molecular Consortium. Science 10.1126/science.1092002.'}, { 'key': 'ref8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': '9. Bosch BJ, Martina BE, Van Der Zee R, Lepault J, Haijema BJ, et al. ' 'Severe ARDS due to SARS CoV infection inhibition using spike protein ' 'heptad repeated-derived peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004; 101: ' '8455-8460. PubMed:', 'DOI': '10.1073/pnas.0400576101'}], 'container-title': 'Journal of Clinical Intensive Care and Medicine', 'original-title': [], 'link': [ { 'URL': '', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 9, 30]], 'date-time': '2021-09-30T06:00:34Z', 'timestamp': 1632981634000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': ''}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2020, 5, 19]]}, 'references-count': 9, 'journal-issue': { 'issue': '1', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2020]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2020]]}}, 'URL': '', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2639-6653'], 'subject': ['General Earth and Planetary Sciences', 'General Environmental Science'], 'container-title-short': 'J Clin Intensive Care Med', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2020, 5, 19]]}}
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop