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c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchSpironolactoneSpironolactone (more..)
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Summary of COVID-19 spironolactone studies

Studies   Meta Analysis   Hide extended summaries

120 patient spironolactone late treatment RCT: 72% lower progression (p=0.03), 49% higher hospital discharge (p=0.05), and 18% faster recovery (p=0.06).
RCT 120 hospitalized patients in India, 74 treated with spironolactone and dexamethasone, and 46 with dexamethasone, showing lower progression with treatment. Spironolactone 50mg once daily day 1, 25mg once daily until day 21.

Jul 2022, medRxiv, https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.07.01.22277163, https://c19p.org/wadhwasp

64,349 patient spironolactone prophylaxis PSM study: 81% lower ventilation (p=0.006) and 66% lower ICU admission (p=0.002).
PSM retrospective 64,349 COVID-19 patients in the USA, showing spironolactone associated with lower ICU admission. Authors also present In Vitro research showing dose-dependent inhibition in a human lung epithelial cell line.

Jul 2022, Cell Reports Methods, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2667237523001327, https://c19p.org/cousinssp

294 patient spironolactone prophylaxis study: 77% fewer cases (p=0.005).
Retrospective 6,462 liver cirrhosis patients in South Korea, with 67 COVID+ cases, showing significantly lower cases with spironolactone treatment. Death and ICU results per group are not provided.

Feb 2021, Frontiers in Medicine, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2021.629176/full, https://c19p.org/jeonsp

138 patient spironolactone late treatment RCT: 55% lower mortality (p=0.1), 34% lower ventilation (p=0.36), 19% lower ICU admission (p=0.67), and 47% improved recovery (p<0.0001).
RCT including 51 spironolactone patients and 87 control patients in Iran, showing improved recovery with spironolactone, sitagliptin, and the combination of both.

Feb 2022, J. the Endocrine Society, https://academic.oup.com/jes/article/6/4/bvac017/6523815, https://c19p.org/abbasisp

60 patient spironolactone ICU study: 46% lower mortality (p=0.002).
Retrospective 30 COVID-19 ARDS ICU patients and 30 control patients, showing lower mortality with treatment.

Oct 2021, Aydin Sağlik Dergi̇si̇, https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/asder/issue/65413/959218, https://c19p.org/ersoysp

206 patient spironolactone late treatment study: 78% lower hospitalization (p=0.0008), 67% lower progression (p=0.003), and 64% faster recovery (p=0.0001).
Prospective study of 206 outpatients in Iran, 103 treated with spironolactone and sitagliptin, showing lower hospitalization and faster recovery with treatment. spironolactone 100mg and sitagliptin 100mg daily.

Jan 2022, J. Endocrinological Investigation, https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40618-023-02141-0, https://c19p.org/davarpanahsp

66 patient spironolactone late treatment RCT: 11% improved recovery (p=0.47), 8% shorter hospitalization (p=0.35), and 87% improved viral clearance (p=0.08).
Prospective 103 PCR+ patients in Russia, 33 treated with bromexhine+spironolactone, showing lower PCR+ at day 10 or hospitalization >10 days with treatment. Bromhexine 8mg 4 times daily, spironolactone 25-50 mg/day for 10 days.

Dec 2020, Кардиология, https://lib.ossn.ru/jour/article/view/1440, https://c19p.org/mareevaasp

898,303 patient spironolactone prophylaxis PSM study: 18% lower mortality (p=0.004) and 17% lower ventilation (p<0.0001).
PSM retrospective 898,303 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the USA, 16,324 on spironolactone, showing lower mortality and ventilation with spironolactone use.

Mar 2023, medRxiv, https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2023.02.28.23286515v1, https://c19p.org/cousins2sp

270 patient spironolactone early treatment study: 77% faster recovery (p=0.006) and 38% faster viral clearance (p=0.02).
Prospective study of 270 female COVID-19 patients in Brazil, 75 with hyperandrogenism, of which 8 were on spironolactone. Results suggest that HA patients may be at increased risk, and that spironolactone use may reduce the risk compared to both other HA patients and non-HA patients. SOC included other treatments and there was no mortality or hospitalization.

Oct 2020, medRxiv, https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.10.05.20206870v1, https://c19p.org/cadegiani9sp

917,198 patient spironolactone late treatment study: 32% lower mortality (p<0.0001).
Retrospective study of 917,198 hospitalized COVID-19 cases covered by the Iran Health Insurance Organization over 26 months showing that antithrombotics, corticosteroids, and antivirals reduced mortality while diuretics, antibiotics, and antidiabetics increased it. Confounding makes some results very unreliable. For example, diuretics like furosemide are often used to treat fluid overload, which is more likely in ICU or advanced disease requiring aggressive fluid resuscitation. Hospitalization length has increased risk of significant confounding, for example longer hospitalization increases the chance of receiving a medication, and death may result in shorter hospitalization. Mortality results may be more reliable. Confounding by indication is likely to be significant for many medications. Authors adjustments have very limited severity information (admission type refers to ward vs. ER department on initial arrival). We can estimate the impact of confounding from typical usage..

Dec 2023, Frontiers in Public Health, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2023.1280434/full, https://c19p.org/mehrizisp

spironolactone prophylaxis study: 7% fewer cases (p=0.008).
Retrospective 26,121 cases and 2,369,020 controls ≥65yo in Canada, showing lower cases with chronic use of spironolactone.

Mar 2022, Open Forum Infectious Diseases, https://academic.oup.com/ofid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ofid/ofac156/6555707, https://c19p.org/macfaddenaasp

689 patient spironolactone prophylaxis study: 129% higher combined mortality/ICU admission (p=0.0007).
Retrospective 689 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Denmark, showing higher risk of ICU/death with spironolactone use in unadjusted results subject to confounding by indication.

May 2020, J. Hypertension, https://journals.lww.com/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002515, https://c19p.org/holt2sp
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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