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Summary of COVID-19 sodium bicarbonate studies

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60 patient sodium bicarbonate late treatment RCT: 64% greater improvement (p=0.0007).
RCT 60 hospitalized patients in India, showing significantly greater clinical improvement with inhaled sodium bicarbonate. Nasal and oral inhalation of nebulized 50ml 8.4% sodium bicarbonate for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days.

Mar 2021, Acta Scientific Orthopaedics,,

55 patient sodium bicarbonate late treatment RCT: 39% shorter hospitalization (p=0.0009).
RCT 55 mild/moderate patients in China, showing shorter hospitalization with sodium bicarbonate nasal irrigation and oral rinsing. Oral rinse with 5% sodium bicarbonate solution three times daily. Nasal irrigation two times with the solution entering through one nostril and exiting from the other. 30–40mL of solution was used every time and irrigation was performed for at least 30s. Details of randomization are not provided.

Mar 2023, Frontiers in Public Health,,

76 patient sodium bicarbonate ICU study: 76% lower mortality (p=0.0001).
Analysis of 76 ICU patients in Brazil, 44 treated with bronchoalveolar lavage using 3% sodium bicarbonate, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage with 10ml of sodium bicarbonate solution directly into the tube (closed circuit), 500μl for each lung segment, followed by aspiration of the solution, performed every 6 hours for 7 days.

Dec 2021, Brazilian J. Development,,

94 patient sodium bicarbonate ICU RCT: 23% lower mortality (p=0.13).
RCT mechanically ventilated patients in Croatia, 42 treated with sodium bicarbonate inhalation, and 52 control patients, showing no significant difference in mortality with treatment. Treated patients showed a lower incidence of gram-positive or MRSA-caused ventilator-associated pneumonia. ICU mortality results are from [].

May 2022, Microorganisms,,

546 patient sodium bicarbonate late treatment RCT: 23% lower mortality (p=0.26) and 28% faster recovery (p<0.0001).
RCT 546 patients showing significantly faster recovery and lower mortality with sodium bicarbonate (inhaled and nasal drops). The reduction in mortality is only statistically significant when excluding baseline critical cases. Inhalation of nebulized sodium bicarbonate 8.4% (5ml every 4h) 7:00am to 23:00pm every day for 30 days together with 8.4% nasal drops 4 times daily (three drops for each nostril).

Nov 2022, Research Square,,

182 patient sodium bicarbonate late treatment study: 57% lower mortality (p=0.37), 39% lower progression (p=0.52), and 19% improved recovery (p=0.03).
Prospective study of 182 COVID-19 pneumonia patients, 127 treated with sodium bicarbonate inhalation and nasal drops, showing significantly faster recovery and improved CT scores with treatment. Authors note that contacts of index cases also received sodium bicarbonate treatment, with none reporting COVID-19. Inhalation of nebulized sodium bicarbonate 8.4% (5ml every 4h) 7:00am to 23:00pm every day for 30 days together with 8.4% nasal drops 4 times daily (three drops for each nostril).

Jun 2022, Indian J. Respiratory Care,,
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