Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All sunlight studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchSunlightSunlight (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Sunlight and Protection Against Influenza

Slusky et al., Economics & Human Biology, doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2020.100942
Jan 2021  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Sunlight for COVID-19
31st treatment shown to reduce risk in December 2021
*, now known with p = 0.000052 from 5 studies.
Lower risk for mortality, hospitalization, recovery, and cases.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective study using CDC data on 12,068 state-weeks showing that increased sunlight exposure is associated with reduced influenza rates during peak fall flu season. A 10% increase in relative sunlight exposure decreases the CDC influenza index by 1.1 points out of 10 in September-October. This relationship was driven mostly by the 2009 H1N1 epidemic.
Slusky et al., 31 Jan 2021, peer-reviewed, 2 authors. Contact:,
This PaperSunlightAll
Sunlight and Protection Against Influenza
David J G Slusky, Richard J Zeckhauser, G Slusky
Medical literature suggests vitamin D protects against respiratory infections • Humans exposed to sunlight produce vitamin D directly • A 10% increase in relative sunlight decreases fall influenza by 1.1 out of 10 • This relationship is driven by almost entirely by the H1N1 epidemic in fall 2009 Abstract Recent medical literature suggests that vitamin D supplementation protects against acute respiratory tract infection. Humans exposed to sunlight produce vitamin D directly. This paper investigates how differences in sunlight, as measured over several years across states and during the same calendar week, affect influenza incidence. We find that sunlight strongly protects against getting influenza. This relationship is driven almost entirely by the severe H1N1 epidemic in fall 2009. A 10% increase in relative sunlight decreases the influenza index in September or October by 1.1 points on a 10-point scale. A second, complementary study employs a separate data set to study flu incidence in counties in New York State. The results are strongly in accord.
Appendix Table B2 considers the typical peak flu months of October to March for the less sunny and more sunny states. While the point estimates are comparable for the two groups, the effect is highly statistically significant (p = 0.003) for the less sunny states and not statistically significant (p = 0.136) for the more sunny states. Appendix Table B4 then expands on Table 3 by stratifying the month-to-month analysis by the same low and high sunniness categories of Appendix Table B2 . While a few coefficients are statistically significant at the 10% level, the only strongly significant coefficient is October for the low sunniness states. However, when pooling September and October, both sets of states have coefficients statistically significant at the 1% level, though the one for the more sunny states is smaller in magnitude. J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f repeats the Table 2 analyses, but includes an unbalanced panel of all contiguous states, Hawaii, and D.C. (i.e., even those with missing influenza data in some weeks). That table shows a comparable result. It also employs both linear and quadratic specifications. All three specifications find strongly statistically significant results, though obviously at different coefficient magnitudes. Appendix Table C2 drops each of the 28 states in the primary specification, one at a time, to test whether the main result persists if any one state is excluded. The answer is yes. Appendix Table C3 performs the analysis for..
Adda, Economic Activity and The Spread of Viral Diseases: Evidence From High Frequency Data, Quarterly Journal of Economics
Alexander, Currie, Are publicly insured children less likely to be admitted to hospital than the privately insured (and does it matter)?, Economics & Human Biology
Almond, Is the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Over? Long-Term Effects of In Utero Influenza Exposure in the Post-1940 U.S. Population, Journal of Political Economy
Almond, Is the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Over? Long-Term Effects of In Utero Influenza Exposure in the Post-1940 U.S. Population, Journal of Political Economy
Anderson, Charles, Rees, Public Health Efforts and the Decline in Urban Mortality
Asfaw, Rosa, Pana-Cyan, Potential Economic Benefits of Paid Sick Leave in Reducing Absenteeism Related to the Spread of Influenza-Like Illness, Journal of Occupational Environmental Medicine
Barmby, Larguem, Coughs and sneezes spread diseases: An empirical study of absenteeism and infectious illness, Journal of Health Economics
Barreca, Clay, Deschenes, Greenstone, Shapiro, Adapting to Climate Change: The Remarkable Decline in the US Temperature-Mortality Relationship over the 20th Century, Journal of Political Economy
Barreca, Climate change, humidity, and mortality in the United States, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management
Barreca, Deschenes, Guldi, Maybe Next Month? The Dynamic Effects of Ambient Temperature on Fertility, Demography
Barreca, Shimshack, Absolute Humidity, Temperature, and Influenza Mortality: 30 Years of County-Level Evidence from the United States, American Journal of Epidemiology
Bartlett, Measles Periodicity and Community Size, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society
Beach, Ferrie, Saavedra, Fetal Shock or Selection? The 1918 Influenza Pandemic and Human Capital Development Brian
Black, Measles endemicity in insular populations: Critical community size and its evolutionary implication, Journal of Theoretical Biology
Borradale, Isenring, Hacker, Kimlin, Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is associated with a decreased folate status in women of childbearing age, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology
Branda, Eaton, Skin color and nutrient photolysis: an evolutionary hypothesis, Science
Brown, Thomas, On the Long Term Effects of the 1918 U.S. Influenza Pandemic
Bruce, Ooi, Yu, Cantorna, Vitamin D and host resistance to infection? Putting the cart in front of the horse, Experimental Biology and Medicine
Charland, Buckeridge, Sturtevant, Melton, By et al., Effect of environmental factors on the spatio-temporal patterns of influenza spread, Epidemiol. Infect
Clay, Lewis, Severnini, Pollution, Infectious Disease, and Mortality: Evidence from the 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic, Journal of Economic History
Clay, Lewis, Severnini, What explains cross-city variation in mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic? Evidence from 438 U.S. cities, Economics & Human Biology
Cohn, Sunlight, skin color, and folic acid, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Conway, Trudeau, Sunshine, fertility and racial disparities, Economics & Human Biology
Cutler, Miller, The role of public health improvements in health advances: the twentieth-century United States, Demography
Deschenes, Temperature, human health, and adaptation: A review of the empirical literature, Energy Economics
Duarte, Kadiyala, Masters, Powell, The Effect of the 2009 Influenza Pandemic on Absence from Work, Health Economics
Fletcher, New Evidence on the Impacts of Early Exposure to the 1918 Influenza Pandemic on Old-Age Mortality: A Research Note, Biodemography and Social Biology
Grant, Giovannucci, The possible roles of solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D in reducing case-fatality rates from the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in the United States, Dermato-Endocrinology
Holick, Vitamin D deficiency, New England Journal of Medicine
Huetal, Miller, Molitor, Adaptation and the Mortality Effects of Temperature Across U.S. Climate Regions, Forthcoming, Review of Economics and Statistics
J O U R N A L P R E, None
J O U R N A L P R E, None
J O U R N A L P R E, None
J O U R N A L P R E, r o o f References
Jones, Lucock, Veysey, Beckett, The Vitamin D⁻Folate Hypothesis as an Evolutionary Model for Skin Pigmentation: An Update and Integration of Current Ideas, Nutrients
Jones, Pharmacokinetics of vitamin D toxicity, Am J Clin Nutr
Khare, Godbole, Pawar, Mohan, Pandey et al., None, Calcitriol
Kwong, Schwartz, Campitelli, Chung, Crowcroft et al., Acute Myocardial Infarction after Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza Infection, New England Journal of Medicine
Lin, Liu, Does in utero exposure to Illness matter? The 1918 influenza epidemic in Taiwan as a natural experiment, Journal of Health Economics
Markowitz, Nesson, Robinson, The effects of employment on influenza rates, Economics & Human Biology
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Greenberg, Aloia et al., Vitamin D J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and metaanalysis of individual participant data, BMJ
Maurer, Who has a clue to preventing the flu? Unravelling supply and demand effects on the take-up of influenza vaccinations, Journal of Health Economics
Mawer, Schaefer, Lumb, Stanbury, The metabolism of isotopically labelled vitamin D3 in man: the influence of the state of vitamin D nutrition, Clin Sci
Momplaisir, Frank, Meyer, Kim, Kappes et al., Vitamin D Levels, Natural H1N1 Infection and Response to H1N1 Vaccine among HIV-Infected Individuals, Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Pichler, Wen, Ziebarth, Positive Health Externalities of Mandating Paid Sick Leave
Pichler, Ziebarth, The Pros and Cons of Sick Pay Schemes: Testing for Contagious Presenteeism and Noncontagious Absenteeism Behavior, Journal of Public Economics
Polozov, Bezrukov, Gawrisch, Zimmerberg, Progressive ordering with decreasing temperature of the phospholipids of influenza virus, Nature Chemical Biology
Sagripanti, Lytle, Inactivation of Influenza Virus by Solar Radiation, Photochemistry and Photobiology
Schanzer, Schwartz, Impact of Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza on Emergency Department Visits, 2003-2010, Ontario, Canada, Acad Emerg Med
Schwandt, The Lasting Legacy of Seasonal Influenza: In-utero Exposure and Labor J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f Market Outcomes
Soebitantyo, Gross, Jorgensen, Buda, Bromberg et al., Associations between Meteorological Parameters and Influenza Activity in Berlin (Germany), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Castile and León (Spain) and Israeli Districts, PLOSOne
Steurer, Karl, Historical Sunshine and Cloud Data in the United States
Sun, Prevalent Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic viral genes facilitating human infection, Forthcoming in PNAS
Trudeau, Conway, Menclova, Soaking Up the Sun: The Role of Sunshine in the Production of Infant Health, American Journal of Health Economics
Urashima, Mezawa, Noya, Camargo, Effects of vitamin D supplements on influenza A illness during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: a randomized controlled trial, Food Funct
Viboud, Epstein, First flu is forever, Science
Wernerfelt, Slusky, Zeckhauser, Second Trimester Sunlight and Asthma: Evidence from Two Independent Studies, American Journal of Health Economics
White, Measuring the Social and Externality Benefits of Influenza Vaccination, Forthcoming in the Journal of Human Resources
Zhang, Wang, Chen, Zhang, Prenatal Sunshine Exposure and Birth Outcomes in China, Science of The Total Environment
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop