Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All zinc studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchZincZinc (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 31% per unit change Improvement Relative Risk Zinc for COVID-19  Seifi et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with zinc beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective study in Iran (February 2020 - June 2022) Lower hospitalization with higher zinc intake (p=0.016) Seifi et al., BMC Nutrition, March 2024 Favors zinc Favors control

Dietary mineral intakes predict Coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence and hospitalization in older adults

Seifi et al., BMC Nutrition, doi:10.1186/s40795-024-00821-5
Mar 2024  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now known with p = 0.0000013 from 44 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Analysis of 1,957 older adults showing lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalization with higher dietary zinc intake. Each unit increase in zinc intake was associated with a 31% reduction in the risk of COVID-19 hospitalization after adjustments. A dynamical system model showed that consumption of zinc < 9.7mg per day was associated with a 1.5 times greater risk of COVID-19 infection.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: the hospitalization result is only provided with respect to continuous values and the confidence interval is not reported for the case result.
risk of hospitalization, 30.6% lower, OR 0.69, p = 0.02, RR approximated with OR, per unit change, per unit change.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Seifi et al., 4 Mar 2024, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, mean age 49.7, 8 authors, study period February 2020 - June 2022. Contact:
This PaperZincAll
Dietary mineral intakes predict Coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence and hospitalization in older adults
Najmeh Seifi, Hossein Bahari, Somayeh Ghiasi Hafezi, Farzaneh Ghotbani, Ahmadreza Afzalinia, Gordon A Ferns, Ehsan Mosa Farkhani, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
BMC Nutrition, doi:10.1186/s40795-024-00821-5
Background The aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary mineral intake and Coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and its associated hospitalization. Methods This cohort study utilized the MASHAD study population, which comprised individuals aged 35-65. Upon recruitment in 2007, dietary intake was documented using a validated 65-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Data on COVID-19 PCR test results was collected from all relevant medical centers in Mashhad between February 2020 and June 2022. The regression model included dietary minerals and employed the backward variable selection method, along with advanced data analysis techniques. Results The final analysis involved 1957 participants, including 193 COVID-19-positive patients. The mean age was 49.71 and 50.28 years in the COVID-19-positive and negative groups, respectively (p = 0.12). Dietary intakes of magnesium, iron, and potassium were notably lower in COVID-19-positive patients (P < 0.05). Following adjustments for age and sex, dietary iron remained significantly associated with COVID-19 incidence (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.98). Furthermore, a statistically significant relationship was observed between dietary zinc and hospitalization due to COVID-19 (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.51-0.93). In dynamical system models, intakes of calcium, zinc, and iron below the cut-offs of 1138, 9.7, and 8.17 mg/day, respectively, were linked to an increased risk of COVID-19 incidence. Conclusion Higher dietary iron and zinc intake are associated with decreased risk of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, respectively.
Authors' contributions N.S. and M.Gh. designed study. A.A. and H.B. collected data. EM.F. and S.Gh. analyzed data. F.Gh, H.B. and N.S. wrote the main manuscript text. G.A.F. and M.Gh. did critical revision. All authors reviewed the manuscript. Declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate All experiments were performed in accordance with the declaration of Helsinki and Mashhad University of Medical Sciences ethical guidelines and regulations. The research protocol was approved by the School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Biomedical Research Ethics Committee (IR.MUMS.MEDICAL.REC.1398.228). All participants signed a written inform consent before participating in the study. Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Abdulah, Hassan, Relation of dietary factors with infection and mortality rates of COVID-19 across the world, J Nutr Health Aging
Andreini, Putignano, Rosato, Banci, The human iron-proteome, Metallomics
Banerjee, Dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic: nonlinear approaches on the modelling, prediction and control, European Phys J Special Topics
Bennouar, Cherif, Kessira, Bennouar, Abdi, Vitamin D deficiency and low serum calcium as predictors of poor prognosis in patients with severe COVID-19, J Am Coll Nutr
Bilal, Dambaeva, Kwak-Kim, Gilman-Sachs, Beaman, A role for iodide and thyroglobulin in modulating the function of human immune cells, Front Immunol
Calder, Carr, Gombart, Eggersdorfer, Optimal nutritional status for a well-functioning immune system is an important factor to protect against viral infections, Nutrients
Cronin, Woolf, Weiss, Penninger, The role of iron regulation in immunometabolism and immune-related disease, Front Mol Biosci
Filippo, Formenti, Rovere-Querini, Carlucci, Conte et al., Hypocalcemia is highly prevalent and predicts hospitalization in patients with COVID-19, Endocrine
Frise, Cheng, Nickol, Curtis, Pollard et al., Clinical iron deficiency disturbs normal human responses to hypoxia, J Clin Investig
Ghayour-Mobarhan, Moohebati, Esmaily, Ebrahimi, Parizadeh et al., Mashhad stroke and heart atherosclerotic disorder (MASHAD) study: design, baseline characteristics and 10-year cardiovascular risk estimation, Int J Public Health
Hafezi, Seifi, Bahari, Mohammadi, Ghasemabadi et al., The association between macronutrient intakes and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in an Iranian population: applying a dynamical system model, J Health Popul Nutr
Higgins, Nonlinear systems in medicine, Yale J Biol Med
Jothimani, Kailasam, Danielraj, Nallathambi, Ramachandran et al., COVID-19: Poor outcomes in patients with zinc deficiency, Int J Infect Dis
Jothimani, Kailasam, Danielraj, Nallathambi, Ramachandran et al., COVID-19: poor outcomes in patients with zinc deficiency, Int J Infect Dis
Maggini, Pierre, Calder, Immune function and micronutrient requirements change over the life course, Nutrients
Mahsa, Zahra, Heidarian, Mehrangiz, Majid et al., Validation of a short semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for adults: a pilot study, J Nutr Sci Dietetics
Mehri, Ghorbani, Farhadi-Babadi, Rahimi, Barati et al., Risk Factors Associated with Severity and Death from COVID-19 in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study, J Intensive Care Med
Ravasco, Aranha, Borralho, Da, Silva et al., Colorectal cancer: can nutrients modulate NF-kappaB and apoptosis?, Clin Nutr
Read, Obeid, Ahlenstiel, Ahlenstiel, The role of zinc in antiviral immunity, Adv Nutr
Schoenenberger, Schmid, Tanase, Beck, Schwaninger, Structural analysis of system dynamics models, Simul Model Pract Theory
Sun, Zhang, Zou, Liu, Li et al., Serum calcium as a biomarker of clinical severity and prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, Aging
Van Doorn, Yu, Viral respiratory infections. Hunter's tropical medicine and emerging infectious diseases
Venter, Eyerich, Sarin, Klatt, Nutrition and the immune system: a complicated tango, Nutrients
Vogel-González, Talló-Parra, Herrera-Fernández, Pérez-Vilaró, Chillón et al., Low zinc levels at admission associates with poor clinical outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection, Nutrients
Walker, Black, Zinc and the risk for infectious disease, Annu Rev Nutr
Willett, Howe, Kushi, Adjustment for total energy intake in epidemiologic studies, Am J Clin Nutr
Willy, Neugebauer, Gerngroß, The Concept of nonlinearity in complex systems, European J Trauma
Wray, Bridwell, Schauer, Shackelford, Bebarta et al., The diamond of death: Hypocalcemia in trauma and resuscitation, Am J Emerg Med
Zhou, Li, Li, The associations of iron related biomarkers with risk, clinical severity and mortality in SARS-CoV-2 patients: a meta-analysis, Nutrients
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop