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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 31% per unit change Improvement Relative Risk Zinc for COVID-19  Seifi et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with zinc beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective study in Iran (February 2020 - June 2022) Lower hospitalization with higher zinc intake (p=0.016) c19early.org Seifi et al., BMC Nutrition, March 2024 Favors zinc Favors control

Dietary mineral intakes predict Coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence and hospitalization in older adults

Seifi et al., BMC Nutrition, doi:10.1186/s40795-024-00821-5
Mar 2024  
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Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.0000013 from 44 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Analysis of 1,957 older adults showing lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalization with higher dietary zinc intake. Each unit increase in zinc intake was associated with a 31% reduction in the risk of COVID-19 hospitalization after adjustments. A dynamical system model showed that consumption of zinc < 9.7mg per day was associated with a 1.5 times greater risk of COVID-19 infection.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: the hospitalization result is only provided with respect to continuous values and the confidence interval is not reported for the case result.
risk of hospitalization, 30.6% lower, OR 0.69, p = 0.02, RR approximated with OR, per unit change, per unit change.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Seifi et al., 4 Mar 2024, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, mean age 49.7, 8 authors, study period February 2020 - June 2022. Contact: ghayourmobarhan@yahoo.com.
This PaperZincAll
Dietary mineral intakes predict Coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence and hospitalization in older adults
Najmeh Seifi, Hossein Bahari, Somayeh Ghiasi Hafezi, Farzaneh Ghotbani, Ahmadreza Afzalinia, Gordon A Ferns, Ehsan Mosa Farkhani, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
BMC Nutrition, doi:10.1186/s40795-024-00821-5
Background The aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary mineral intake and Coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and its associated hospitalization. Methods This cohort study utilized the MASHAD study population, which comprised individuals aged 35-65. Upon recruitment in 2007, dietary intake was documented using a validated 65-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Data on COVID-19 PCR test results was collected from all relevant medical centers in Mashhad between February 2020 and June 2022. The regression model included dietary minerals and employed the backward variable selection method, along with advanced data analysis techniques. Results The final analysis involved 1957 participants, including 193 COVID-19-positive patients. The mean age was 49.71 and 50.28 years in the COVID-19-positive and negative groups, respectively (p = 0.12). Dietary intakes of magnesium, iron, and potassium were notably lower in COVID-19-positive patients (P < 0.05). Following adjustments for age and sex, dietary iron remained significantly associated with COVID-19 incidence (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.98). Furthermore, a statistically significant relationship was observed between dietary zinc and hospitalization due to COVID-19 (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.51-0.93). In dynamical system models, intakes of calcium, zinc, and iron below the cut-offs of 1138, 9.7, and 8.17 mg/day, respectively, were linked to an increased risk of COVID-19 incidence. Conclusion Higher dietary iron and zinc intake are associated with decreased risk of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, respectively.
Authors' contributions N.S. and M.Gh. designed study. A.A. and H.B. collected data. EM.F. and S.Gh. analyzed data. F.Gh, H.B. and N.S. wrote the main manuscript text. G.A.F. and M.Gh. did critical revision. All authors reviewed the manuscript. Declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate All experiments were performed in accordance with the declaration of Helsinki and Mashhad University of Medical Sciences ethical guidelines and regulations. The research protocol was approved by the School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Biomedical Research Ethics Committee (IR.MUMS.MEDICAL.REC.1398.228). All participants signed a written inform consent before participating in the study. Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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