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Cannabinoids and the Endocannabinoid System in Early SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Long COVID-19—A Scoping Review

Scott et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm13010227
Dec 2023  
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Review of the potential therapeutic role of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in SARS-CoV-2 infection and long COVID-19. Authors note that early in infection, cannabinoids may prevent viral entry, mitigate oxidative stress, and alleviate cytokine storm. Post-infection, they have shown promise treating long COVID-19 symptoms like depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, insomnia, pain, and appetite issues. Authors note that most studies have been outside the context of COVID-19, and further research is necessary to understand the efficacy, safety, mechanisms, and optimal cannabinoid treatments for early and long COVID-19.
Scott et al., 30 Dec 2023, peer-reviewed, 4 authors. Contact: (corresponding author),,,
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Cannabinoids and the Endocannabinoid System in Early SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Long COVID-19—A Scoping Review
Cassidy Scott, Stefan Hall, Juan Zhou, Christian Lehmann
Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm13010227
) is a highly contagious illness caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The clinical presentation of COVID-19 is variable, often including symptoms such as fever, cough, headache, fatigue, and an altered sense of smell and taste. Recently, post-acute "long" COVID-19 has emerged as a concern, with symptoms persisting beyond the acute infection. Vaccinations remain one of the most effective preventative methods against severe COVID-19 outcomes and the development of long-term COVID-19. However, individuals with underlying health conditions may not mount an adequate protective response to COVID-19 vaccines, increasing the likelihood of severe symptoms, hospitalization, and the development of long-term COVID-19 in high-risk populations. This review explores the potential therapeutic role of cannabinoids in limiting the susceptibility and severity of infection, both pre-and post-SARS-CoV-19 infection. Early in the SARS-CoV-19 infection, cannabinoids have been shown to prevent viral entry, mitigate oxidative stress, and alleviate the associated cytokine storm. Post-SARS-CoV-2 infection, cannabinoids have shown promise in treating symptoms associated with post-acute long COVID-19, including depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress injury, insomnia, pain, and decreased appetite. While current research primarily focuses on potential treatments for the acute phase of COVID-19, there is a gap in research addressing therapeutics for the early and post-infectious phases. This review highlights the potential for future research to bridge this gap by investigating cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system as a potential treatment strategy for both early and post-SARS-CoV-19 infection.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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