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Selenium serum levels in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Roldán-Bretón et al., Journal of Nutritional Science, doi:10.1017/jns.2023.69
Jul 2023  
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Systematic review and meta analysis of 11 studies, showing significantly lower selenium levels in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls.
Currently there are 3 selenium treatment studies and meta analysis shows:
Hospitalization22% lower [-106‑70%]
Cases41% fewer [-98‑82%]
Roldán-Bretón et al., 26 Jul 2023, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
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Selenium serum levels in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Nuria Renata Roldán-Bretón, Adriana Guadalupe Capuchino-Suárez, María Esther Mejía-León, Carlos Olvera-Sandoval, Dania Nimbe Lima-Sánchez
Journal of Nutritional Science, doi:10.1017/jns.2023.69
The nutritional status is a determinant of the immune response that promotes a cellular homeostasis. In particular, adequate selenium levels lead to a better antioxidant and immune response. The aim of this work is to assess whether blood selenium levels, at time of SARS-CoV-2 infection, have an impact on the development and severity of COVID-19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative and descriptive studies using MeSH terms, selenium and COVID-19 was performed. We searched bibliographic databases up to 17 July 2022 in PubMed and ScienceDirect. Studies that reported data on blood selenium levels were considered. A total of 629 articles were examined by abstract and title, of which 595 abstracts were read, of which 38 were included in the systematic review and 11 in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was conducted to mean difference (MD) with a 95 % confidence interval (CI), and heterogeneity was tested by I 2 with random factors with a MD between selenium levels, mortality, morbidity and healthy subjects with a P-value of 0⋅05. Selenium levels were higher in healthy people compared to those in patients with COVID-19 disease (six studies, random effects MD: test for overall effect Z = 3⋅28 (P = 0⋅001), 97 % CI 28⋅36 (11⋅41-45⋅31), P < 0⋅00001), but without difference when compared with the degree of severity in mild, moderate or severe cases. In conclusion, the patients with active SARS-CoV-2 infection had lower selenium levels than the healthy population. More studies are needed to evaluate its impact on clinical severity through randomised clinical trials.
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