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Cetylpyridinium chloride and chlorhexidine show antiviral activity against Influenza A virus and Respiratory Syncytial virus in vitro

Rius-Salvador et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0297291
Feb 2024  
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In Vitro study showing antiviral activity against influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Authors found CPC and CHX decreased infectivity of both viruses by 90-99.9% depending on concentration. Commercial CPC and CHX-containing mouthwash preparations also reduced viral viability up to 99.99%. The use of mouthwashes with CPC or CHX may help limit infection and spread of enveloped respiratory viruses in the oral cavity.
Study covers cetylpyridinium chloride and chlorhexidine.
Rius-Salvador et al., 16 Feb 2024, peer-reviewed, 8 authors. Contact:
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
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Cetylpyridinium chloride and chlorhexidine show antiviral activity against Influenza A virus and Respiratory Syncytial virus in vitro
Marina Rius-Salvador, Maria Jesús García-Múrria, Luciana Rusu, Manuel Bañó-Polo, Rubén León, Ron Geller, Ismael Mingarro, Luis Martinez-Gil
PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0297291
Background The oral cavity is the site of entry and replication for many respiratory viruses. Furthermore, it is the source of droplets and aerosols that facilitate viral transmission. It is thought that appropriate oral hygiene that alters viral infectivity might reduce the spread of respiratory viruses and contribute to infection control. Materials and methods Here, we analyzed the antiviral activity of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), chlorhexidine (CHX), and three commercial CPC and CHX-containing mouthwash preparations against the Influenza A virus and the Respiratory syncytial virus. To do so the aforementioned compounds and preparations were incubated with the Influenza A virus or with the Respiratory syncytial virus. Next, we analyzed the viability of the treated viral particles. Results Our results indicate that CPC and CHX decrease the infectivity of both the Influenza A virus and the Respiratory Syncytial virus in vitro between 90 and 99.9% depending on the concentration. Likewise, CPC and CHX-containing mouthwash preparations were up to 99.99% effective in decreasing the viral viability of both the Influenza A virus and the Respiratory syncytial virus in vitro. Conclusion The use of a mouthwash containing CPC or CHX alone or in combination might represent a cost-effective measure to limit infection and spread of enveloped respiratory viruses infecting the oral cavity, aiding in reducing viral transmission. Our findings may stimulate future
Supporting information S1 Fig. Time of exposure. We tested the effect of the exposure time to CPC. To do so, IAV/ WSN/33 was incubated with CPC at 0.1% for 2 minutes, 1 minute, or 30 seconds. Next, the virus was diluted and used to infect MDCK cells as previously described. After 48 hours of infection, the viral load was assessed by TCID50. We used a 2-minute treatment with SDS at 0.05% as a positive control and PBS solution as a negative control. No differences in the viral load were observed between the 2 minutes, 1 minute, or 30 seconds exposure. (PDF) Author Contributions Conceptualization: Maria Jesu ´s Garcı ´a-Mu ´rria, Ron Geller, Ismael Mingarro, Luis Martinez-Gil. Data curation: Luis Martinez-Gil. Formal analysis: Luis Martinez-Gil. Investigation: Marina Rius-Salvador, Maria Jesu ´s Garcı ´a-Mu ´rria, Luciana Rusu, Luis Martinez-Gil. Project administration: Maria Jesu ´s Garcı ´a-Mu ´rria, Ismael Mingarro, Luis Martinez-Gil. Resources: Manuel Baño ´-Polo, Rube ´n Leo ´n, Ron Geller, Ismael Mingarro. Supervision: Ismael Mingarro, Luis Martinez-Gil. Validation: Ron Geller. Writing -original draft: Luis Martinez-Gil.
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