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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization -47% Improvement Relative Risk Hospitalization time -60% Cannabidiol  Ramakrishnan et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with cannabidiol beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 6,291 patients in the USA (January - December 2020) Higher hospitalization with cannabidiol (p=0.0001) Ramakrishnan et al., The J. Clinical P.., Aug 2022 Favors cannabidiol Favors control

Impact of Cannabis Use, Substance Use Disorders, and Psychiatric Diagnoses on COVID-19 Outcomes

Ramakrishnan et al., The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, doi:10.4088/JCP.21m14332
Aug 2022  
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Retrospective 6,291 COVID-19 patients in the USA, showing higher mean hospital admissions and higher maximum length of hospitalization with cannabis use disorder.
Results for cannabis use disorder patients may differ from other use of cannabis.
risk of hospitalization, 47.2% higher, RR 1.47, p < 0.001, treatment 20, control 6,271, mean number of admissions.
hospitalization time, 60.1% higher, relative time 1.60, p = 0.004, treatment 20, control 6,271, maximum length of hospitalization.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ramakrishnan et al., 29 Aug 2022, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 4 authors, study period January 2020 - December 2020. Contact:
This PaperCannabidiolAll
Impact of Cannabis Use, Substance Use Disorders, and Psychiatric Diagnoses on COVID-19 Outcomes
BS Divya Ramakrishnan, MS Soundari Sureshanand, MS Brian Pittman, MBBS Rajiv Radhakrishnan
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, doi:10.4088/jcp.21m14332
Early Career Psychiatrists CME Background Articles are selected for credit designation based on an assessment of the educational needs of CME participants, with the purpose of providing readers with a curriculum of CME articles on a variety of topics throughout each volume. Activities are planned using a process that links identified needs with desired results. To obtain credit, read the article, correctly answer the questions in the Posttest, and complete the Evaluation. CME Objective After studying this article, you should be able to: • Understand which SUDs and other psychiatric patient subgroups may be more susceptible to severe COVID-19 infections and outcomes and better direct needed medical attention to these patients. Accreditation Statement The CME Institute of Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc., is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Credit Designation The CME Institute of Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc., designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Note: The American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) and the American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA) accept certificates of participation for educational activities certified for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ from organizations accredited by the ACCME.
For reprints or permissions, contact ♦ © 2022 Copyright Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc. It is illegal to post this copyrighted PDF on any website. Posttest To obtain credit, go to to take this Posttest and complete the Evaluation.
Allen, Shahawy, Rogers, Association of substance use disorders and drug overdose with adverse COVID-19 outcomes in New York City: January-October 2020, J Public Health (Oxf)
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Schimmel, Manini, Opioid use disorder and COVID-19: biological plausibility for worsened outcomes, Subst Use Misuse
Vai, Mazza, Colli, Mental disorders and risk of COVID-19-related mortality, hospitalisation, and intensive care unit admission: a systematic review and metaanalysis, Lancet Psychiatry, doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(21)00232-7
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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