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The Effect of Oral Care Foams and a Spray on Salivary pH Changes after Exposure to Acidic Beverages in Young Adults

Polyakova et al., Dentistry Journal, doi:10.3390/dj12040093, NCT06148662
Apr 2024  
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Randomized study showing that rinsing with Coca-Cola significantly lowered salivary pH, with an average of 27 minutes to return to baseline, and rinsing with tested oral care products or water after exposure increased the minimum salivary pH and shortened the time for recovery to baseline.
Kreutzberger et al. showed that SARS-CoV-2 requires an acidic pH (between 6.2-6.8) for membrane fusion and cell entry, even when the viral spike protein is primed by proteases like TMPRSS2.
This suggests that consuming acidic foods and drinks, potentially lowering salivary pH, could theoretically create a more favorable environment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. While initial infection typically starts in the nasal cavity, lower pH may facilitate infection in the throat and further progression (changes in nasal cavity pH are also possible, for example via acidic aerosols from carbonated beverages). However this has not been directly investigated. We recommend research on the potential effect of dietary acidity on SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Polyakova et al., 3 Apr 2024, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, Russia, peer-reviewed, mean age 23.8, 7 authors, study period November 2023 - December 2023, trial NCT06148662 (history). Contact: babina_k_s@staff.sechenov.ru (corresponding author), polyakova_m_a_1@staff.sechenov.ru, anylechka@mail.ru, doroshina_v_yu@staff.sechenov.ru, novozhilova_n_e@staff.sechenov.ru, zaytsev_a_b@staff.sechenov.ru, alexey@malash.in.
This PaperAlkalinizationAll
The Effect of Oral Care Foams and a Spray on Salivary pH Changes after Exposure to Acidic Beverages in Young Adults
Maria Polyakova, Anna Egiazaryan, Vladlena Doroshina, Alexandr Zaytsev, Alexey Malashin, Ksenia Babina, Nina Novozhilova
Dentistry Journal, doi:10.3390/dj12040093
Soft drinks may have a deleterious effect on dental health due to a high titratable acidity and a low pH that could be sufficient to induce tooth demineralization. The use of oral care products immediately after acidic challenge may diminish the erosive potential of soft drinks. We assessed the effect of oral care foams and a spray on salivary pH changes after exposure to Coca-Cola ® in young adults. Thirty-three consenting eligible patients were recruited in this double-blind, randomized, crossover study performed in six visits. Baseline examination included unstimulated salivary flow rate, stimulated salivary buffer capacity, and the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) assessment. Salivary pH and time for pH recovery were registered after exposure to Coca-Cola ® alone or that followed by the application of each of the studied products (an oral foam containing hydroxyapatite and probiotics, an oral foam containing amino fluoride, an alkaline oral spray, and tap water). Thirtytwo patients completed the entire study protocol and were included in the final analysis. The mean minimum salivary pH and the mean oral clearance rate after rinsing with Coca-Cola ® were 6.3 and 27 min, respectively. Further rinsing with any one of the tested solutions, including tap water, resulted in a significant improvement in these parameters. When the pH curves were plotted, the oral care products demonstrated a lower area under the curve that differed significantly from the area under the curve for Coca-Cola ® ; tap water did not differ significantly from Coca-Cola ® and oral care products. Minimum salivary pH correlated positively with salivary buffer capacity and salivation rate, while salivary clearance correlated with OHI-S plaque scores. In conclusion, the effect of oral care foams and a spray on minimum salivary pH and salivary clearance after exposure to Coca-Cola ® did not differ significantly among the tested products and tap water. Trial registration NCT06148662.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest or financial or personal relationships with other individuals or organizations that could inappropriately influence their actions in a way that creates bias.
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{ 'DOI': '10.3390/dj12040093', 'ISSN': ['2304-6767'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/dj12040093', 'abstract': '<jats:p>Soft drinks may have a deleterious effect on dental health due to a high titratable ' 'acidity and a low pH that could be sufficient to induce tooth demineralization. The use of ' 'oral care products immediately after acidic challenge may diminish the erosive potential of ' 'soft drinks. We assessed the effect of oral care foams and a spray on salivary pH changes ' 'after exposure to Coca-Cola® in young adults. Thirty-three consenting eligible patients were ' 'recruited in this double-blind, randomized, crossover study performed in six visits. Baseline ' 'examination included unstimulated salivary flow rate, stimulated salivary buffer capacity, ' 'and the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) assessment. Salivary pH and time for pH ' 'recovery were registered after exposure to Coca-Cola® alone or that followed by the ' 'application of each of the studied products (an oral foam containing hydroxyapatite and ' 'probiotics, an oral foam containing amino fluoride, an alkaline oral spray, and tap water). ' 'Thirty-two patients completed the entire study protocol and were included in the final ' 'analysis. The mean minimum salivary pH and the mean oral clearance rate after rinsing with ' 'Coca-Cola® were 6.3 and 27 min, respectively. Further rinsing with any one of the tested ' 'solutions, including tap water, resulted in a significant improvement in these parameters. ' 'When the pH curves were plotted, the oral care products demonstrated a lower area under the ' 'curve that differed significantly from the area under the curve for Coca-Cola®; tap water did ' 'not differ significantly from Coca-Cola® and oral care products. Minimum salivary pH ' 'correlated positively with salivary buffer capacity and salivation rate, while salivary ' 'clearance correlated with OHI-S plaque scores. In conclusion, the effect of oral care foams ' 'and a spray on minimum salivary pH and salivary clearance after exposure to Coca-Cola® did ' 'not differ significantly among the tested products and tap water. Trial registration ' 'NCT06148662. Funding: none.</jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['dj12040093'], 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4494-2644', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Therapeutic Dentistry, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow ' 'State Medical University (Sechenov University), 119991 Moscow, ' 'Russia'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Polyakova', 'given': 'Maria', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0009-0004-9470-1381', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Therapeutic Dentistry, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow ' 'State Medical University (Sechenov University), 119991 Moscow, ' 'Russia'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Egiazaryan', 'given': 'Anna', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Therapeutic Dentistry, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow ' 'State Medical University (Sechenov University), 119991 Moscow, ' 'Russia'}], 'family': 'Doroshina', 'given': 'Vladlena', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3774-3070', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Institute of Linguistics and Intercultural Communication, I.M. ' 'Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov ' 'University), 119991 Moscow, Russia'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Zaytsev', 'given': 'Alexandr', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Independent Researcher, 123298 Moscow, Russia'}], 'family': 'Malashin', 'given': 'Alexey', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4445-0858', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Therapeutic Dentistry, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow ' 'State Medical University (Sechenov University), 119991 Moscow, ' 'Russia'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Babina', 'given': 'Ksenia', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1073-7693', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Therapeutic Dentistry, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow ' 'State Medical University (Sechenov University), 119991 Moscow, ' 'Russia'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Novozhilova', 'given': 'Nina', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'Dentistry Journal', 'container-title-short': 'Dentistry Journal', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': False, 'domain': []}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 3]], 'date-time': '2024-04-03T07:37:21Z', 'timestamp': 1712129841000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 3]], 'date-time': '2024-04-03T08:27:46Z', 'timestamp': 1712132866000}, 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 4]], 'date-time': '2024-04-04T01:04:24Z', 'timestamp': 1712192664361}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'issue': '4', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 3]]}, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '4', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 3]], 'date-time': '2024-04-03T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1712102400000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/2304-6767/12/4/93/pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '1968', 'original-title': [], 'page': '93', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 3]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 3]]}, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'reference': [ { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ejca.2010.03.025', 'article-title': 'Tea, Coffee, Carbonated Soft Drinks and Upper Gastrointestinal Tract ' 'Cancer Risk in a Large United States Prospective Cohort Study', 'author': 'Ren', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1873', 'journal-title': 'Eur. 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