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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ ICU admission 56% Improvement Relative Risk Pepkowitz et al. Vitamin D for COVID-19 Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 37 patients in the USA Lower ICU admission with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.014) Pepkowitz et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Increased COVID-19 Severity: Prospective Screening of At-Risk Groups is Medically Indicated

Pepkowitz et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint)
Pepkowitz et al., Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Increased COVID-19 Severity: Prospective Screening of At-Risk Groups.., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint)
Sep 2020   Source   PDF  
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Retrospective 37 hospitalized patients in the USA, showing higher risk of ICU admission with vitamin D deficiency.
This is the 16th of 175 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 18 vigintillion).
risk of ICU admission, 55.8% lower, RR 0.44, p = 0.01, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 9 of 24 (37.5%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 11 of 13 (84.6%), NNT 2.1, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Pepkowitz et al., 29 Sep 2020, retrospective, USA, preprint, 7 authors.
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Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Increased COVID-19 Severity: Prospective Screening of At-Risk Groups is Medically Indicated
MD Samuel H Pepkowitz, MD Calvin J Hobel, James M Mirocha Ms, Kimia.Sobhani, Carissa A Huynh Bs, MD Harneet Jawanda, PhD Wohaib Hasan
Non-classical actions of Vitamin D are involved in regulation of the immune system including a role in mitigation of excessive in ammation. We hypothesized that vitamin D de ciency existing prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection could contribute to patients developing severe pulmonary compromise as a result of dysfunctional hyperin ammation. Serum vitamin D concentrations of patients experiencing such severe COVID-19 manifestations that they required ICU care at any point of their hospitalization were compared to serum vitamin D concentrations of patients achieving discharge without the need for any ICU care. Having serum vitamin D < 20 ng/mL was signi cantly associated with increased COVID-19 severity, p=0.001. It is conjectured that population groups know to have low serum vitamin D should be prospectively screened for de ciency and if found emergently treated. Such action could both decrease the maximum severity suffered by infected individuals and lessen the strain on medical resources by decreasing the percentage of COVID-19 hospital admissions requiring ICU care.
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