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Seasonal UV exposure and vitamin D: Association with the dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in Europe

Mukherjee et al., FEBS Open Bio, doi:10.1002/2211-5463.13309
Oct 2021  
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Sunlight for COVID-19
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Analysis of UV exposure in 26 European countries, showing that cloud-free vitamin D UV dose levels were negatively correlated with COVID-19 prevalence.
Study covers sunlight and vitamin D.
Mukherjee et al., 5 Oct 2021, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
This PaperSunlightAll
Seasonal UV exposure and vitamin D: association with the dynamics of COVID‐19 transmission in Europe
Sunanda Biswas Mukherjee, Alessandro Gorohovski, Eugene Merzon, Eliad Levy, Sumit Mukherjee, Milana Frenkel‐morgenstern
FEBS Open Bio, doi:10.1002/2211-5463.13309
This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record.
Author Contributions SBM and MFM conceived and designed the project. SBM, AG, and EM acquired the data. SBM, AG, EM, EL, and SM analyzed and interpreted the data. SBM, AG, SM, and MFM wrote the paper. SBM, AG, SM, and MFM revised the article. All authors read and agreed on the final version of the article. Conflict of interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Accepted Article
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{ 'DOI': '10.1002/2211-5463.13309', 'ISSN': ['2211-5463', '2211-5463'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.13309', 'abstract': '<jats:p>Several recent studies have demonstrated that low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D levels are ' 'associated with the risk of COVID‐19 infection. The primary source of vitamin D production in ' 'humans is environmental UV radiation. In many viral respiratory diseases, peak infection ' 'rates are observed during winter due to reduced UV exposure and low temperatures. In Europe, ' 'the second wave of COVID‐19 began early in the winter of 2020. Investigating the impact of ' 'seasonal temperature and UV exposure on COVID‐19 transmission could thus aid in prevention ' 'and intervention. As such, we first performed a comprehensive meta‐analysis of all related ' 'published literature based on the association between vitamin D and COVID‐19, which supported ' 'the hypothesis that the low vitamin D level is a critical risk factor for COVID‐19 infection. ' 'Next, to understand the potential impact of seasonal UV and temperature levels on COVID‐19 ' 'cases, we analyzed meteorological data and daily COVID‐19 cases per million in the ' 'populations of 26 European countries. We observed that low temperature, UV index, and ' 'cloud‐free vitamin D UV dose (UVDVF) levels are negatively correlated with COVID‐19 ' 'prevalence in Europe. Furthermore, a distributed lag nonlinear model was used to assess the ' 'nonlinear delayed effects of individual seasonal factors on COVID‐19 cases. Such analysis ' 'highlighted the significantly delayed impact of UVDVF on the cumulative relative risk of ' 'COVID‐19 infection. The findings of this study suggest that low UV exposure can affect the ' 'required production of vitamin D in the body, which substantially influences the dynamics of ' 'COVID‐19 transmission and severity.</jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['10.1002/2211-5463.13309'], 'assertion': [ { 'group': {'label': 'Publication History', 'name': 'publication_history'}, 'label': 'Received', 'name': 'received', 'order': 0, 'value': '2021-05-26'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Publication History', 'name': 'publication_history'}, 'label': 'Accepted', 'name': 'accepted', 'order': 1, 'value': '2021-10-04'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Publication History', 'name': 'publication_history'}, 'label': 'Published', 'name': 'published', 'order': 2, 'value': '2021-12-04'}], 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4466-539X', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Cancer Genomics and BioComputing of Complex Diseases Lab Azrieli ' 'Faculty of Medicine Bar‐Ilan University Safed Israel'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Mukherjee', 'given': 'Sunanda Biswas', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4126-9781', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Cancer Genomics and BioComputing of Complex Diseases Lab Azrieli ' 'Faculty of Medicine Bar‐Ilan University Safed Israel'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Gorohovski', 'given': 'Alessandro', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ {'name': 'Leumit Health Services Tel Aviv Israel'}, { 'name': 'Department of Family Medicine Sackler School of Medicine Tel ' 'Aviv University Israel'}], 'family': 'Merzon', 'given': 'Eugene', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Cancer Genomics and BioComputing of Complex Diseases Lab Azrieli ' 'Faculty of Medicine Bar‐Ilan University Safed Israel'}], 'family': 'Levy', 'given': 'Eliad', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9807-7994', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Cancer Genomics and BioComputing of Complex Diseases Lab Azrieli ' 'Faculty of Medicine Bar‐Ilan University Safed Israel'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Mukherjee', 'given': 'Sumit', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0329-4599', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Cancer Genomics and BioComputing of Complex Diseases Lab Azrieli ' 'Faculty of Medicine Bar‐Ilan University Safed Israel'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Frenkel‐Morgenstern', 'given': 'Milana', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'FEBS Open Bio', 'container-title-short': 'FEBS Open Bio', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': True, 'domain': ['febs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com']}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 6]], 'date-time': '2021-10-06T21:19:41Z', 'timestamp': 1633555181000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 28]], 'date-time': '2023-08-28T08:36:00Z', 'timestamp': 1693211760000}, 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 27]], 'date-time': '2024-03-27T18:38:13Z', 'timestamp': 1711564693093}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 9, 'issue': '1', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 12, 4]]}, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '1', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2022, 1]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 12, 4]], 'date-time': '2021-12-04T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1638576000000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/2211-5463.13309', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full-xml/10.1002/2211-5463.13309', 'content-type': 'application/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://febs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/2211-5463.13309', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '311', 'original-title': [], 'page': '106-117', 'prefix': '10.1002', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 12, 4]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 12, 4]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2022, 1]]}, 'publisher': 'Wiley', 'reference': [ { 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03968.x', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_10_2_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1146/annurev-virology-012420-022445', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_10_3_1'}, { 'article-title': 'Seasonality of respiratory viral infections: will COVID‐19 follow suit?', 'author': 'Audi A', 'first-page': '576', 'journal-title': 'Front Public Heal', 'key': 'e_1_2_10_4_1', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2020'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.jinf.2019.07.008', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_10_5_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1136/adc.58.7.500', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_10_6_1'}, { 'article-title': 'Coronavirus infections in working adults. 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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