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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Symp. case -212% Improvement Relative Risk Symp. case (b) -71% Case -3% Cannabidiol for COVID-19  Merianos et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with cannabidiol beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 800 patients in the USA More symptomatic cases with cannabidiol (p=0.0000069) c19early.org Merianos et al., Addictive Behaviors, Mar 2022 Favors cannabidiol Favors control

Concurrent use of e-cigarettes and cannabis and associated COVID-19 symptoms, testing, and diagnosis among student e-cigarette users at four U.S. Universities

Merianos et al., Addictive Behaviors, doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.107170
Mar 2022  
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Retrospective 800 e-cigarette users in the USA, showing higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis and symptoms with cannabis use.
risk of symptomatic case, 211.9% higher, RR 3.12, p < 0.001, treatment 94 of 416 (22.6%), control 20 of 384 (5.2%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, COVID-19 symptoms.
risk of symptomatic case, 70.6% higher, RR 1.71, p = 0.008, treatment 77 of 416 (18.5%), control 38 of 384 (9.9%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, COVID-19 diagnosis.
risk of case, 3.4% higher, RR 1.03, p = 0.33, treatment 367 of 416 (88.2%), control 317 of 384 (82.6%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, COVID-19 test.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Merianos et al., 31 Mar 2022, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, survey, 6 authors. Contact: ashley.merianos@uc.edu, ar117@uark.edu, melinda.mahabee-gittens@cchmc.org, aebarry@tamu.edu, my10@iu.edu, linhsi@indiana.edu.
This PaperCannabidiolAll
Concurrent use of e-cigarettes and cannabis and associated COVID-19 symptoms, testing, and diagnosis among student e-cigarette users at four U.S. Universities
Ashley L Merianos, Alex M Russell, E Melinda Mahabee-Gittens, Adam E Barry, Meng Yang, Hsien-Chang Lin
Addictive Behaviors, doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.107170
This investigation assessed whether current (past 30-day) electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and cannabis use was associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptomatology, testing, and diagnosis among college student e-cigarette users. Methods: Participants were 18-26-year-old college student e-cigarette users attending four geographically diverse, large U.S. public universities during October-December 2020 (N = 800). Multivariable logistic regression models explored associations between exclusive e-cigarette use and concurrent e-cigarette and cannabis use and COVID-19 symptoms, testing, and diagnosis. Models controlled for demographics, university site, and current use of combustible cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. Results: Over half of student e-cigarette users (52.0%) concurrently used cannabis. Compared to exclusive ecigarette users, concurrent e-cigarette and cannabis users were 3.53 times more likely (95%CI = 1.96-6.36) to report COVID-19 symptoms, after adjusting for the covariates. Compared to infrequent exclusive e-cigarette users, infrequent concurrent users (AOR = 4.72, 95%CI = 1.31-17.00), intermediate concurrent users (AOR = 5.10, 95%CI = 1.37-18.97), and frequent concurrent users (AOR = 7.44, 95%CI = 2.06-26.84) were at increased odds of reporting COVID-19 symptoms. Compared to exclusive e-cigarette users, concurrent e-cigarette and cannabis users were 1.85 times more likely (95%CI = 1.15-2.98) to report a COVID-19 diagnosis. Intermediate concurrent users (AOR = 2.88, 95%CI = 1.13-7.35) and frequent concurrent users (AOR = 3.22, 95%CI = 1.32-7.87) were at increased odds of reporting a COVID-19 diagnosis, compared to infrequent exclusive ecigarette users. Conclusions: Concurrent use of e-cigarettes and cannabis may be an underlying risk factor of COVID-19 symptomatology and diagnosis, with more pronounced odds found among intermediate and frequent users. Results highlight the need to educate students about the impacts of e-cigarette and cannabis use on respiratory, immune, and overall health.
Declaration of Competing Interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
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