Importance of Microminerals for Maintaining Antioxidant Function After COVID-19-induced Oxidative Stress
et al., Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 11:3
Importance of Microminerals for Maintaining Antioxidant Function After COVID-19-induced Oxidative Stress, Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 11:3
Retrospective 100 COVID-19 patients and 100 healthy controls in India, showing significantly lower zinc levels in COVID-19 patients.
Maradi et al., 31 Oct 2022, retrospective, India, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
Abstract: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Vol.11, No.3, Oct 2022
Importance of Microminerals for
Maintaining Antioxidant Function After
COVID-19-induced Oxidative Stress
Ravindra Maradi1, Vivek Joshi*2, Vaideki Balamurugan1,
Divya Susan Thomas1, Manjunath B Goud3
Background: COVID-19 is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Coronavirus
2. Since the antioxidant mechanisms such as glutathione peroxidase or superoxide dismutase are
downregulated during infection by the virus, there is an imbalance in the oxidant-antioxidant system.
In this study we aimed to identify the effect of COVID-19 on the antioxidant defense mechanism by
comparing the concentrations of antioxidants and microminerals in COVID-19 patients and healthy
Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study involved 200 patients at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal
University. The serum concentrations of antioxidants and minerals were determined to establish the
impact of COVID-19 on antioxidants mechanism and nutrient status in COVID-19 patients.
Results: The serum concentrations of GPX (10.36 ± 2.70 ≥ 5.82 ± 1.64 mKAT/L, p < 0.0001) and
copper (2192.5 ± 449.8 ≥ 782.15 ± 106.5 µg/dL, p < 0.0001) were significantly greater, and zinc
(34.78 ± 4.5 ≤ 81.07 ± 10.13 µg/dL, p < 0.0001) was significantly less, in the study group than in
controls. The Pearson correlation between serum SOD and zinc was significant (r = 0.491, p < 0.0001)
indicating the importance of zinc in maintaining and improving SOD activity. No significant
correlations were observed between copper and SOD (r = -0.089) or iron and CAT (r = -0.027).
Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the expected increase in oxidant-radical production during
COVID-19 by estimating the altered concentrations of antioxidants and the minerals required to
neutralize the elevated ROS. This finding is not novel but adds to the existing literature, which
recommends nutritional supplementation of microminerals and antioxidants.
Keywords: COVID-19, Cytokines, Glutathione Peroxidase, Minerals, Reactive oxygen species, Zinc.
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