Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All metformin studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchMetforminMetformin (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case -30% Improvement Relative Risk Metformin for COVID-19  Kolin et al.  Prophylaxis Does metformin reduce COVID-19 infections? Retrospective 397,064 patients in the United Kingdom More cases with metformin (not stat. sig., p=0.075) Kolin et al., PLOS ONE, November 2020 Favors metformin Favors control

Clinical, regional, and genetic characteristics of Covid-19 patients from UK Biobank

Kolin et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0241264
Nov 2020  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Metformin for COVID-19
3rd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 87 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
397,064 patient UK Biobank retrospective showing higher risk of COVID-19 with metformin use, without statistical significance. Metformin is typically prescribed for diabetes, diabetes patients have significantly higher COVID-19 risk, and results are not adjusted for diabetes.
Study covers metformin and acetaminophen.
risk of case, 30.0% higher, RR 1.30, p = 0.08.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Kolin et al., 17 Nov 2020, retrospective, United Kingdom, peer-reviewed, 4 authors. Contact:
This PaperMetforminAll
Clinical, regional, and genetic characteristics of Covid-19 patients from UK Biobank
David A Kolin, Scott Kulm, Paul J Christos, Olivier Elemento
PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0241264
Background Coronavirus disease 2019 has rapidly infected millions of people worldwide. Recent studies suggest that racial minorities and patients with comorbidities are at higher risk of Covid-19. In this study, we analyzed the effects of clinical, regional, and genetic factors on Covid-19 positive status. Methods The UK Biobank is a longitudinal cohort study that recruited participants from 2006 to 2010 from throughout the United Kingdom. Covid-19 test results were provided to UK Biobank starting on March 16, 2020. The main outcome measure in this study was Covid-19 positive status, determined by the presence of any positive test for a single individual. Clinical risk factors were derived from UK Biobank at baseline, and regional risk factors were imputed using census features local to each participant's home zone. We used robust adjusted Poisson regression with clustering by testing laboratory to estimate relative risk. Blood types were derived using genetic variants rs8176719 and rs8176746, and genomewide tests of association were conducted using logistic-Firth hybrid regression. Results This prospective cohort study included 397,064 UK Biobank participants, of whom 968 tested positive for Covid-19. The unadjusted relative risk of Covid-19 for Black participants was 3.66 (95% CI 2.83-4.74), compared to White participants. Adjusting for Townsend deprivation index alone reduced the relative risk to 2.44 (95% CI 1.86-3.20). Comorbidities that significantly increased Covid-19 risk included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (adjusted relative risk [ARR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.18-2.27), ischemic heart disease (ARR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16-1.89), and depression (ARR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03-1.70). There was some evidence that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ARR 1.48, 95% CI 1.13-1.93) were associated with increased risk of Covid-19. Each standard deviation increase in the number of total individuals living in a participant's locality was associated with increased risk of ). Analyses of genetically inferred blood types
Supporting information S1 Appendix. (DOCX) Author Contributions Conceptualization: David A. Kolin, Scott Kulm, Olivier Elemento. Data curation
Benetti, Giliberti, Emiliozzi, Velentino, Bergantini et al., Clinical and molecular characterization of COVID-19 hospitalized patients, Genetic and Genomic Medicine, doi:10.1101/2020.05.22.20108845
Bertrand, Mullainathan, Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination, American Economic Review, doi:10.1257/0002828042002561
Burton, Fort, Seoane, Hospitalization and Mortality among Black Patients and White Patients with Covid-19, New England Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1056/NEJMsa2011686
Chang, Chow, Tellier, Vattikuti, Purcell et al., Second-generation PLINK: rising to the challenge of larger and richer datasets, GigaScience, doi:10.1186/s13742-015-0047-8
Chung, Dong, Li, Socioeconomic gradient in health and the covid-19 outbreak, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1329
Dilthey, Leslie, Moutsianas, Shen, Cox et al., Multi-Population Classical HLA Type Imputation. Browning S, editor, PLoS Computational Biology, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002877
Dyal, Grant, Broadwater, Bjork, Waltenburg et al., COVID-19 Among Workers in Meat and Poultry Processing Facilities -19 States, MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6918e3PMID:69
Ellinghaus, Degenhardt, Bujanda, Buti, Albillos et al., Genomewide Association Study of Severe Covid-19 with Respiratory Failure, New England Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2020283
Ellulu, Patimah, Khaza'ai, Rahmat, Abed, Obesity and inflammation: the linking mechanism and the complications, Archives of Medical Science, doi:10.5114/aoms.2016.58928
Fang, Karakiulakis, Roth, Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection? The, Lancet Respiratory Medicine, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600%2820%2930116-8
Fosbøl, Butt, Østergaard, Andersson, Selmer et al., Association of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor or Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Use With COVID-19 Diagnosis and Mortality, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.11301
Fuentes, Ackermann, Athreya, Bolnick, Lasisi et al., AAPA Statement on Race and Racism, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, doi:10.1002/ajpa.23882
Goyal, Choi, Pinheiro, Schenck, Chen et al., Clinical Characteristics of Covid-19 in New York City, New England Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1056/NEJMc2010419
Groot, Sierra, Said, Lipsic, Karper et al., Genetically Determined ABO Blood Group and its Associations With Health and Disease, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.119.313658
Heath, Stasio, Racial discrimination in Britain, 1969-2017: a meta-analysis of field experiments on racial discrimination in the British labour market, The British Journal of Sociology, doi:10.1111/1468-4446.12676
Hooper, ´poles, ´rez-Stable, COVID-19 and Racial/Ethnic Disparities, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8598
Howie, Donnelly, Marchini, A Flexible and Accurate Genotype Imputation Method for the Next Generation of Genome-Wide Association Studies, PLoS Genetics, doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000529
Khadjeh, Hindmarsh, Weber, Cyganek, Vidal et al., CRISPLD1: a novel conserved target in the transition to human heart failure, Basic Research in Cardiology, doi:10.1007/s00395-020-0784-4
Khalatbari-Soltani, Cumming, Delpierre, Kelly-Irving, Importance of collecting data on socioeconomic determinants from the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak onwards, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, doi:10.1136/jech-2020-214297
Khayat, Assumpcao, De, Khayat, Araujo et al., ACE2 polymorphisms as potential players in COVID-19 outcome, Genetic and Genomic Medicine, doi:10.1101/2020.05.27.20114843
Khunti, Is ethnicity linked to incidence or outcomes of covid-19?, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1548
Knittel, Ozaltun, What Does and Does Not Correlate With COVID-19 Death Rates?, Working Paper Series
Laurencin, Mcclinton, The COVID-19 Pandemic: a Call to Action to Identify and Address Racial and Ethnic Disparities, Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, doi:10.1007/s40615-020-00756-0
Little, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and covid-19, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1185
Maglo, Mersha, Martin, Population Genomics and the Statistical Values of Race: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Biological Classification of Human Populations and Implications for Clinical Genetic Epidemiological Research, Frontiers in Genetics, doi:10.3389/fgene.2016.00007
Mcnutt, Estimating the Relative Risk in Cohort Studies and Clinical Trials of Common Outcomes, American Journal of Epidemiology, doi:10.1093/aje/kwg074
Mehta, Kalra, Nowacki, Anjewierden, Han et al., Association of Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers With Testing Positive for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), JAMA Cardiology, doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1855
Niedzwiedz, Donnell, Jani, Demou, Ho et al., Ethnic and socioeconomic differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection: prospective cohort study using UK Biobank, BMC Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12916-020-01640-8
Richardson, Hirsch, Narasimhan, Crawford, Mcginn et al., Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6775
Rosner, Ritchie, Ortiz-Ospina, Hasell, Statistics and Research: Coronavirus (COVID-19) Cases. Our World in Data
Singh, Gupta, Ghosh, Misra, Diabetes in COVID-19: Prevalence, pathophysiology, prognosis and practical considerations. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome, Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.004
Stasio, Heath, Are employers in Britain discriminating against ethnic minorities? Centre for Social Investigation
Tignanelli, Ingraham, Sparks, Reilkoff, Bezdicek et al., Antihypertensive drugs and risk of COVID-19? The, Lancet Respiratory Medicine, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600%2820%2930153-3
Tomiyama, Shiina, Matsumoto-Nakano, Ninomiya, Komatsu et al., The Contribution of Inflammation to the Development of Hypertension Mediated by Increased Arterial Stiffness, Journal of the American Heart Association, doi:10.1161/JAHA.117.005729
Tsalamandris, Cardiology Clinic, The Role of Inflammation in Diabetes: Current Concepts and Future Perspectives, European Cardiology Review, doi:10.15420/ecr.2018.33.1
Valentino-Devries, Lu, Dance, Location Data Says it All: Staying at Home During Coronavirus Is a Luxury
Vyas, Eisenstein, Jones, Malina, Hidden in Plain Sight-Reconsidering the Use of Race Correction in Clinical Algorithms, New England Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1056/NEJMms2004740
Wang, Li, Lu, Huang, Does comorbidity increase the risk of patients with COVID-19: evidence from meta-analysis, Aging, doi:10.18632/aging.103000
Wang, Zhang, Li, Hu, Li et al., CRISPLD1 rs12115090 polymorphisms alters antiplatelet potency of clopidogrel in coronary artery disease patients in Chinese Han, Gene, doi:10.1016/j.gene.2018.08.027
Willer, Li, Abecasis, METAL: fast and efficient meta-analysis of genomewide association scans, Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btq340
Williams, Freydin, Mangino, Couvreur, Visconti et al., Self-reported symptoms of covid-19 including symptoms most predictive of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are heritable, Genetic and Genomic Medicine, doi:10.1101/2020.04.22.20072124
Williamson, Walker, Bhaskaran, Bacon, Bates et al., Factors associated with COVID-19-related death using OpenSAFELY, Nature, doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2521-4
Yancy, COVID-19 and African Americans, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6548
Zhao, Yang, Huang, Li, Gu et al., Relationship between the ABO Blood Group and the COVID-19 Susceptibility, Epidemiology, doi:10.1101/2020.03.11.20031096
Zietz, Tatonetti, Testing the association between blood type and COVID-19 infection, intubation, and death, doi:10.1101/2020.04.08.20058073
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop