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Evolution of Status of Trace Elements and Metallothioneins in Patients with COVID-19: Relationship with Clinical, Biochemical, and Inflammatory Parameters

Herrera-Quintana et al., Metabolites, doi:10.3390/metabo13080931
Aug 2023  
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Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now known with p = 0.0000027 from 43 studies, recognized in 10 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Prospective study of 86 critical COVID-19 patients in Spain showing that low zinc levels were predictive of severity. There was a high prevalence of zinc deficiency.
Herrera-Quintana et al., 9 Aug 2023, prospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, 5 authors, study period 1 April, 2020 - 1 December, 2020. Contact:
This PaperZincAll
Changes in trace elements and metallothioneins levels and their relationship with clinical, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters in patients with COVID-19 during the early ICU phase
Lourdes Herrera-Quintana, Héctor Vázquez-Lorente, Yenifer Gamarra-Morales, Jorge Molina-López, Vojtech Adam, Lukas Richtera, Elena Planells
Background The levels of trace elements and Metallothioneins (MTs) could play a key role in modulating the in ammatory reaction and pathogenesis of COVID-19. Their effects on clinical variables are of interest for the characterization and management of this disease. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the association between circulating Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), and MTs levels, as well as their relationship with clinical, biochemical, and in ammatory parameters in critical care patients with COVID-19 at early Intensive Care Unit (ICU) phase. Methods A total of 86 critically ill patients with COVID-19 were monitored from the rst day of admission to the ICU until the third day of stay. Clinical parameters were retrieved from the hospital database. Biochemical and in ammatory parameters were analyzed following enzymatic colorimetry and immunoassay procedures. Serum samples were used to assess mineral levels by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and MTs levels by differential pulse voltammetric. Results Levels of Cu and MTs decreased (all P ≤ 0.046) after 3 days of ICU stay, increasing the prevalence of Cu de cient values from 50-65.3% (P = 0.015) on the third day of ICU stay. Fe and Zn were shown to have a predictive value for mortality and severity. Changes in Fe were directly related to changes in Cu and Mn (all r ≥ 0.266; P ≤ 0.019). In contrast, changes in MTs were inversely related to changes in Mn and albumin (all r≥-0.255; P ≤ 0.039). Conclusions The present study indicated a risk of trace element de ciencies related to different biochemical and clinical parameters. We suggest monitoring the mineral status and performing nutritional interventions, when appropriate, that could help to improve the altered parameters, such as in ammatory conditions and, thus, the prognosis in critically ill patients with COVID-19.
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