Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All chlorhexidine studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchChlorhexidineChlorhexidine (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Antihistamines Meta
Azvudine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Bromhexine Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Quercetin Meta
Favipiravir Meta Remdesivir Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Effects of Chlorhexidine and Povidone-Iodine on the SARS-CoV-2 Load: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Hasan et al., European Journal of Dentistry, doi:10.1055/s-0042-1753470
Sep 2022  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
46th treatment shown to reduce risk in January 2024
*, now with p = 0.00000000062 from 3 studies.
Lower risk for progression, cases, and viral clearance.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments.
Systematic review and meta analysis showing significantly improved viral clearance with both povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine.
Currently there are 3 chlorhexidine studies and meta analysis shows:
Cases57% fewer [9‑80%]
Study covers chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine.
Hasan et al., 8 Sep 2022, peer-reviewed, 6 authors. Contact:
This PaperChlorhexidineAll
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 8]], 'date-time': '2022-09-08T23:42:23Z', 'timestamp': 1662680543617}, 'reference-count': 47, 'publisher': 'Georg Thieme Verlag KG', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 8]], 'date-time': '2022-09-08T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1662595200000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': ''}], 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'abstract': '<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>The efficacy of mouthwash for reducing the viral ' 'load in patients with the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. This ' 'systematic review and meta-analysis comprehensively examined the effects of chlorhexidine ' '(CHX) and povidone-iodine (PVP-I) on the viral load in patients with COVID-19. We performed ' 'methodological analysis, systematic review, and meta-analysis of included studies using the ' 'Comprehensive Meta-analysis Software. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ProQuest were ' 'searched from December 1, 2019, to December 2, 2021. In total, we included 10 studies of ' '1,339 patients with COVID-19. Compared with the control group, both CHX and PVP-I ' 'significantly reduced the number of negative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction ' '(RT-PCR) results (p&lt;0.001) among COVID-19 patients. The CHX and PVP-I were effective on ' 'reducing the number of negative RT-PCR results in COVID-19 patients. Additional studies using ' 'adequate randomization methods and larger samples are warned.</jats:p>', 'DOI': '10.1055/s-0042-1753470', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 8]], 'date-time': '2022-09-08T23:05:51Z', 'timestamp': 1662678351000}, 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'Effects of Chlorhexidine and Povidone-Iodine on the SARS-CoV-2 Load: A Systematic Review and ' 'Meta-analysis', 'prefix': '10.1055', 'author': [ { 'given': 'Faizul', 'family': 'Hasan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'School of Nursing, College of Nursing, Taipei Medical ' 'University, Taipei, Taiwan'}]}, { 'given': 'Hsiao-Yean', 'family': 'Chiu', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'School of Nursing, College of Nursing, Taipei Medical ' 'University, Taipei, Taiwan'}]}, { 'given': 'Eisner', 'family': 'Salamanca', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'School of Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taipei Medical ' 'University, Taipei, Taiwan'}]}, { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Edi S.', 'family': 'Ridwan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Alma Ata ' 'University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia'}]}, { 'given': 'Bayu S.', 'family': 'Wiratama', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Population Health, ' 'Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas ' 'Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta City, Indonesia'}]}, { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Hendrik S.', 'family': 'Budi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Oral Biology, Dental Pharmacology, Faculty of ' 'Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia'}]}], 'member': '194', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 8]]}, 'reference': [ { 'issue': '08', 'key': 'ref1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '727', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2001017', 'article-title': 'A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019', 'volume': '382', 'author': 'N Zhu', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'key': 'ref3', 'volume-title': 'The SARS epidemic and its aftermath in China: a political perspective', 'author': 'Y Huang', 'year': '2004'}, { 'issue': '06', 'key': 'ref4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1030', 'DOI': '10.3201/eid1006.030852', 'article-title': 'Epidemiologic clues to SARS origin in China', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'R H Xu', 'year': '2004', 'journal-title': 'Emerg Infect Dis'}, { 'key': 'ref5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1353', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14630-2', 'article-title': 'Epidemiology and cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in ' "Guangdong, People's Republic of China, in February, 2003", 'volume': '362', 'author': 'N S Zhong', 'year': '2003', 'journal-title': 'Lancet'}, { 'issue': '03', 'key': 'ref6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '404', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.012', 'article-title': 'Asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia ' 'due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): ' 'facts and myths', 'volume': '53', 'author': 'C C Lai', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Microbiol Immunol Infect'}, { 'issue': '09', 'key': 'ref7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e238', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30484-9', 'article-title': 'Comparing SARS-CoV-2 with SARS-CoV and influenza pandemics', 'volume': '20', 'author': 'E Petersen', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Infect Dis'}, { 'issue': '04', 'key': 'ref8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '181', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.sdentj.2020.04.001', 'article-title': 'Guidelines for dental care provision during the COVID-19 pandemic', 'volume': '32', 'author': 'A Alharbi', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Saudi Dent J'}, { 'issue': '01', 'key': 'ref9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '32', 'DOI': '10.1111/idj.12609', 'article-title': 'Emergency management in a dental clinic during the coronavirus disease ' '2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Beijing', 'volume': '71', 'author': 'C Wang', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Int Dent J'}, { 'key': 'ref10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'article-title': 'Modes of contact and risk of transmission in COVID-19 among close ' 'contacts', 'author': 'L Luo', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'medRxiv', 'DOI': '10.1101/2020.03.24.20042606'}, { 'key': 'ref11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'S165', 'DOI': '10.1055/s-0040-1718641', 'article-title': 'COVID-19 pandemic: oral health challenges and recommendations', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'F F Farook', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Eur J Dent'}, { 'issue': '04', 'key': 'ref12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '442', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1079-2104(05)80124-6', 'article-title': 'The antiviral spectrum of Listerine antiseptic', 'volume': '79', 'author': 'D K Dennison', 'year': '1995', 'journal-title': 'Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod'}, { 'issue': '02', 'key': 'ref13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '235', 'DOI': '10.1007/s40121-018-0202-5', 'article-title': 'Bactericidal and virucidal activity of povidone-iodine and ' 'chlorhexidine gluconate cleansers in an in vivo hand hygiene clinical ' 'simulation study', 'volume': '7', 'author': 'M Eggers', 'year': '2018', 'journal-title': 'Infect Dis Ther'}, { 'issue': '04', 'key': 'ref14', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1126', 'DOI': '10.3390/jcm9041126', 'article-title': 'COVID-19: A recommendation to examine the effect of mouthrinses with ' 'β-Cyclodextrin combined with Citrox in preventing infection and ' 'progression', 'volume': '9', 'author': 'F Carrouel', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Med'}, { 'key': 'ref15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'S182', 'DOI': '10.1055/s-0040-1717001', 'article-title': 'Preprocedural use of povidone-iodine mouthwash during dental procedures ' 'in the COVID-19 pandemic', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'E Imran', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Eur J Dent'}, { 'issue': '11', 'key': 'ref16', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1228', 'DOI': '10.1177/0022034520943574', 'article-title': 'Interventions to reduce aerosolized microbes in dental practice: a ' 'systematic review with network meta-analysis of randomized controlled ' 'trials', 'volume': '99', 'author': 'D Koletsi', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Dent Res'}, { 'issue': '02', 'key': 'ref17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e179', 'DOI': '10.4317/jced.57406', 'article-title': 'Is there scientific evidence of the mouthwashes effectiveness in ' 'reducing viral load in Covid-19? A systematic review', 'volume': '13', 'author': 'B L Cavalcante-Leão', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Exp Dent'}, { 'issue': '04', 'key': 'ref18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '657', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jhin.2020.10.003', 'article-title': 'Do hydrogen peroxide mouthwashes have a virucidal effect? A systematic ' 'review', 'volume': '106', 'author': 'K L Ortega', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Hosp Infect'}, { 'key': 'ref19', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'article-title': 'Mouth-rinses and SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva: a living systematic ' 'review', 'author': 'A H Vásquez', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'medRxiv', 'DOI': '10.1101/2021.03.23.21254214'}, { 'key': 'ref20', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '30', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jhin.2021.04.004', 'article-title': 'Oral antiseptics against coronavirus: in-vitro and clinical evidence', 'volume': '113', 'author': 'M V Mateos-Moreno', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Hosp Infect'}, { 'issue': '01', 'key': 'ref21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1794363', 'DOI': '10.1080/20002297.2020.1794363', 'article-title': 'Antiviral mouthwashes: possible benefit for COVID-19 with ' 'evidence-based approach', 'volume': '12', 'author': 'M S Moosavi', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Oral Microbiol'}, { 'key': 'ref22', 'first-page': '71', 'article-title': 'Una bussola per le revisioni sistematiche: la versione italiana della ' 'nuova edizione del PRISMA statement', 'volume': '372', 'author': 'A E Maraolo', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'issue': '06', 'key': 'ref23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1871', 'DOI': '10.3390/jcm9061871', 'article-title': 'Performance assessment of SARS-CoV-2 PCR assays developed by WHO ' 'referral laboratories', 'volume': '9', 'author': 'S Etievant', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Med'}, { 'key': 'ref24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'volume-title': 'Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 6.0', 'author': 'J P Higgins', 'year': '2019', 'DOI': '10.1002/9781119536604'}, { 'issue': '03', 'key': 'ref26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '177', 'DOI': '10.1016/0197-2456(86)90046-2', 'article-title': 'Meta-analysis in clinical trials', 'volume': '7', 'author': 'R DerSimonian', 'year': '1986', 'journal-title': 'Control Clin Trials'}, { 'key': 'ref27', 'volume-title': 'Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdle', 'author': 'J Cohen', 'year': '1988'}, { 'key': 'ref28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '557', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557', 'article-title': 'Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses', 'volume': '327', 'author': 'J P Higgins', 'year': '2003', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'issue': '11', 'key': 'ref29', 'first-page': '27', 'article-title': 'Comparison of effectiveness of chlorine dioxide mouthwash and ' 'chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in reduction of oral viral load in ' 'patients with COVID-19', 'volume': '11', 'author': 'S Avhad', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Indian J Public Health Res Dev'}, { 'issue': '01', 'key': 'ref30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '919', 'DOI': '10.3329/brc.v7i1.54245', 'article-title': 'Effect of 1% povidone iodine mouthwash/gargle, nasal and eye drop in ' 'COVID-19 patient', 'volume': '7', 'author': 'M IM Choudhury', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Biores Commun'}, { 'key': 'ref31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'article-title': 'Chlorhexidine mouthwash reduces the salivary viral load of SARS-CoV-2: ' 'A randomized clinical trial', 'author': 'D D Costa', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Oral Dis', 'DOI': '10.1111/odi.14086'}, { 'issue': '06', 'key': 'ref32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e07346', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07346', 'article-title': 'Salivary SARS-CoV-2 load reduction with mouthwash use: a randomized ' 'pilot clinical trial', 'volume': '7', 'author': 'F P Eduardo', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Heliyon'}, { 'issue': '03', 'key': 'ref33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '101584', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jebdp.2021.101584', 'article-title': 'In vivo evaluation of the virucidal efficacy of chlorhexidine and ' 'povidone-iodine mouthwashes against salivary SARS-CoV-2. A ' 'randomized-controlled clinical trial', 'volume': '21', 'author': 'R Elzein', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Evid Based Dent Pract'}, { 'issue': '04', 'key': 'ref34', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '400', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamaoto.2020.5490', 'article-title': 'Povidone iodine mouthwash, gargle, and nasal spray to reduce ' 'nasopharyngeal viral load in patients with COVID-19: a randomized ' 'clinical trial', 'volume': '147', 'author': 'J Guenezan', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg'}, { 'issue': '07', 'key': 'ref35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '4370', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.26954', 'article-title': 'Use of chlorhexidine to eradicate oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 ' 'patients', 'volume': '93', 'author': 'Y H Huang', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Med Virol'}, { 'key': 'ref36', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'article-title': 'Early viral Clearance among COVID-19 patients when gargling with ' 'povidone-iodine and essential oils–a clinical trial', 'author': 'N A Mohamed', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'medRxiv', 'DOI': '10.1101/2020.09.07.20180448'}, { 'key': 'ref37', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'article-title': 'A randomized trial on the regular use of potent mouthwash in COVID-19 ' 'treatment', 'author': 'K Mukhtar', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'medRxiv', 'DOI': '10.1101/2020.11.27.20234997'}, { 'issue': '02', 'key': 'ref38', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '305', 'DOI': '10.1007/s15010-020-01563-9', 'article-title': 'Efficacy of commercial mouth-rinses on SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva: ' 'randomized control trial in Singapore', 'volume': '49', 'author': 'C J Seneviratne', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Infection'}, { 'issue': '02', 'key': 'ref39', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '388', 'DOI': '10.1055/s-0041-1724154', 'article-title': 'Disinfectants used in stomatology and SARS-CoV-2 infection', 'volume': '15', 'author': 'M Stawarz-Janeczek', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Eur J Dent'}, { 'issue': '08', 'key': 'ref40', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '924', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.bjoms.2020.08.016', 'article-title': 'Use of mouthwashes against COVID-19 in dentistry', 'volume': '58', 'author': 'A Vergara-Buenaventura', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg'}, { 'issue': '02', 'key': 'ref41', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '274', 'DOI': '10.1086/524736', 'article-title': 'Chlorhexidine: expanding the armamentarium for infection control and ' 'prevention', 'volume': '46', 'author': 'A M Milstone', 'year': '2008', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis'}, { 'issue': '02', 'key': 'ref42', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '85', 'DOI': '10.1002/jemt.20238', 'article-title': 'Chlorhexidine-induced ultrastructural alterations in oral biofilm', 'volume': '68', 'author': 'L Vitkov', 'year': '2005', 'journal-title': 'Microsc Res Tech'}, { 'issue': '05', 'key': 'ref43', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '308', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.adaj.2017.01.021', 'article-title': 'Chlorhexidine mouthwash as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in chronic ' 'periodontitis: a meta-analysis', 'volume': '148', 'author': 'L FNP da Costa', 'year': '2017', 'journal-title': 'J Am Dent Assoc'}, { 'issue': '01', 'key': 'ref44', 'first-page': '86', 'article-title': 'Chlorhexidine: an effective anticovid mouth rinse', 'volume': '25', 'author': 'A Jain', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Indian Soc Periodontol'}, { 'issue': '04', 'key': 'ref45', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '475', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ajoms.2021.02.002', 'article-title': 'Virucidal activity of oral care products against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro', 'volume': '33', 'author': 'A Komine', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Oral Maxillofac Surg Med Pathol'}, { 'issue': '05', 'key': 'ref46', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '389', 'DOI': '10.1034/j.1600-0765.2002.00004.x', 'article-title': 'Selection of antimicrobial agents in periodontal therapy', 'volume': '37', 'author': 'J Slots', 'year': '2002', 'journal-title': 'J Periodontal Res'}, { 'issue': '03', 'key': 'ref47', 'first-page': 'CD008676', 'article-title': 'Chlorhexidine mouthrinse as an adjunctive treatment for gingival health', 'volume': '3', 'author': 'P James', 'year': '2017', 'journal-title': 'Cochrane Database Syst Rev'}, { 'issue': '08', 'key': 'ref48', 'first-page': '435', 'article-title': 'Extrinsic stains and management: A new insight', 'volume': '1', 'author': 'S Prathap', 'year': '2013', 'journal-title': 'J Acad Ind Res'}, { 'issue': '03', 'key': 'ref49', 'first-page': 'e410', 'article-title': 'An in vitro analysis model for investigating the staining effect of ' 'various chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes', 'volume': '9', 'author': 'A A Kouadio', 'year': '2017', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Exp Dent'}], 'container-title': 'European Journal of Dentistry', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': '', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 8]], 'date-time': '2022-09-08T23:12:49Z', 'timestamp': 1662678769000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': ''}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 8]]}, 'references-count': 47, 'URL': '', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['1305-7456', '1305-7464'], 'subject': ['General Dentistry'], 'container-title-short': 'Eur J Dent', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 8]]}}
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop