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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 10% Improvement Relative Risk Drake et al. Ibuprofen for COVID-19 Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with ibuprofen beneficial for COVID-19? Prospective study in the United Kingdom (January - August 2020) No significant difference in mortality Drake et al., The Lancet Rheumatology, doi:10.1016/S2665-9913(21)00104-1 Favors ibuprofen Favors control

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and outcomes of COVID-19 in the ISARIC Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK cohort: a matched, prospective cohort study

Drake et al., The Lancet Rheumatology, doi:10.1016/S2665-9913(21)00104-1
Drake et al., Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and outcomes of COVID-19 in the ISARIC Clinical Characterisation.., The Lancet Rheumatology, doi:10.1016/S2665-9913(21)00104-1
Jul 2021   Source   PDF  
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Prospective study of 78,674 COVID-19 patients, showing no significant difference in mortality with ibuprofen use.
risk of death, 10.0% lower, OR 0.90, p = 0.36, adjusted per study, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Drake et al., 31 Jul 2021, prospective, United Kingdom, peer-reviewed, 362 authors, study period 17 January, 2020 - 10 August, 2020.
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and outcomes of COVID-19 in the ISARIC Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK cohort: a matched, prospective cohort study
Thomas M Drake, Cameron J Fairfield, PhD Riinu Pius, Stephen R Knight, Lisa Norman, Michelle Girvan, Hayley E Hardwick, PhD Annemarie B Docherty, PhD Ryan S Thwaites, Peter J M Openshaw, J Kenneth Baillie, Prof Ewen M Harrison, PhD Malcolm G Semple, J Kenneth Baillie, PhD Malcolm G Semple, Peter Jm Openshaw, Gail Carson, Beatrice Alex, Benjamin Bach, Wendy S Barclay, Debby Bogaert, Meera Chand, Graham S Cooke, Ana Da Silva Filipe, Thushan De Silva, PhD Annemarie B Docherty, Jake Dunning, Tom Fletcher, Christopher A Green, Prof Ewen M Harrison, Julian A Hiscox, Antonia Yw Ho, Peter W Horby, Samreen Ijaz, Say Khoo, Paul Klenerman, Andrew Law, Wei Shen Lim, Alexander J Mentzer, Laura Merson, Alison M Meynert, Shona C Moore, Mahdad Noursadeghi, Massimo Palmarini, William A Paxton, Georgios Pollakis, Nicholas Price, Andrew Rambaut, David L Robertson, Clark D Russell, Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu, Janet T Scott, Louise Sigfrid, Tom Solomon, Shiranee Sriskandan, David Stuart, Charlotte Summers, Richard S Tedder, Aa Roger Thompson, Emma C Thomson, PhD Ryan S Thwaites, Lance Cw Turtle, Maria Zambon, Chloe Donohue, Fiona Griffiths, Hayley E Hardwick, Ruth Lyons, Wilna Oosthuyzen, Thomas M Drake, Cameron J Fairfield, Stephen R Knight, Kenneth A Mclean, Derek Murphy, Lisa Norman, PhD Riinu Pius, Catherine A Shaw, Marie Connor, Jo Dalton, Carrol Gamble, Michelle Girvan, Sophie Halpin, Janet Harrison, Clare Jackson, Laura Marsh, Stephanie Roberts, Egle Saviciute, Sara Clohisey, Ross Hendry, Andrew Law, Gary Leeming, James Scott-Brown, Murray Wham, William Greenhalf, Sara Mcdonald, Victoria Shaw, Seán Keating, Katie A Ahmed, Jane A Armstrong, Milton Ashworth, Innocent G Asiimwe, Siddharth Bakshi, Samantha L Barlow, Laura Booth, Benjamin Brennan, Katie Bullock, Nicola Carlucci, Emily Cass, Benjamin Wa Catterall, Jordan J Clark, Emily A Clarke, Sarah Cole, Louise Cooper, Helen Cox, Christopher Davis, Oslem Dincarslan, Alejandra Doce Carracedo, Chris Dunn, Philip Dyer, Angela Elliott, Anthony Evans, Lorna Finch, Lewis Ws Fisher, Lisa Flaherty, Terry Foster, Isabel Garcia-Dorival, William Greenhalf, Philip Gunning, Catherine Hartley, Anthony Holmes, Rebecca L Jensen, Christopher B Jones, Trevor R Jones, Shadia Khandaker, Katharine King, Robyn T Kiy, Chrysa Koukorava, Annette Lake, Suzannah Lant, Diane Latawiec, Lara Lavelle-Langham, Daniella Lefteri, Lauren Lett, Lucia A Livoti, Maria Mancini, Hannah Massey, Nicole Maziere, Sarah Mcdonald, Laurence Mcevoy, John Mclauchlan, Soeren Metelmann, Nahida S Miah, Joanna Middleton, Joyce Mitchell, Shona C Moore, Ellen G Murphy, Rebekah Penrice-Randal, Jack Pilgrim, Tessa Prince, Will Reynolds, P Matthew Ridley, Debby Sales, Victoria E Shaw, Rebecca K Shears, Benjamin Small, Krishanthi S Subramaniam, Agnieska Szemiel, Aislynn Taggart, Jolanta Tanianis-Hughes, Jordan Thomas, Erwan Trochu, Libby Van Tonder, Eve Wilcock, J Eunice Zhang, Alan Maclean, Sarah Mccafferty, Kirstie Morrice, Lee Murphy, Nicola Wrobel, Kayode Adeniji, Daniel Agranoff, Ken Agwuh, Dhiraj Ail, Erin L Aldera, Ana Alegria, Brian Angus, Abdul Ashish, Dougal Atkinson, Shahedal Bari, Gavin Barlow, Stella Barnass, Nicholas Barrett, Christopher Bassford, Sneha Basude, David Baxter, Michael Beadsworth, Jolanta Bernatoniene, John Berridge, Nicola Best, Pieter Bothma, Robin Brittain-Long, Naomi Bulteel, Tom Burden, Andrew Burtenshaw, Vikki Caruth, David Chadwick, David Chadwick, Duncan Chambler, Nigel Chee, Jenny Child, Srikanth Chukkambotla, Tom Clark, Paul Collini, Catherine Cosgrove, Jason Cupitt, Maria-Teresa Cutino-Moguel, Paul Dark, Chris Dawson, Samir Dervisevic, Phil Donnison, Sam Douthwaite, Ingrid Durand, Ahilanadan Dushianthan, Tristan Dyer, Cariad Evans, Chi Eziefula, Chrisopher Fegan, Adam Finn, Duncan Fullerton, Sanjeev Garg, Sanjeev Garg, Atul Garg, Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas, Jo Godden, Arthur Goldsmith, Clive Graham, Elaine Hardy, Stuart Hartshorn, Daniel Harvey, Peter Havalda, Daniel B Hawcutt, Maria Hobrok, Luke Hodgson, Anil Hormis, Michael Jacobs, Susan Jain, Paul Jennings, Agilan Kaliappan, Vidya Kasipandian, Stephen Kegg, Michael Kelsey
The Lancet Rheumatology, doi:10.1016/s2665-9913(21)00104-1
Background Early in the pandemic it was suggested that pre-existing use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) could lead to increased disease severity in patients with COVID-19. NSAIDs are an important analgesic, particularly in those with rheumatological disease, and are widely available to the general public without prescription. Evidence from community studies, administrative data, and small studies of hospitalised patients suggest NSAIDs are not associated with poorer COVID-19 outcomes. We aimed to characterise the safety of NSAIDs and identify whether pre-existing NSAID use was associated with increased severity of COVID-19 disease. Methods This prospective, multicentre cohort study included patients of any age admitted to hospital with a confirmed or highly suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection leading to COVID-19 between Jan 17 and Aug 10, 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes were disease severity at presentation, admission to critical care, receipt of invasive ventilation, receipt of non-invasive ventilation, use of supplementary oxygen, and acute kidney injury. NSAID use was required to be within the 2 weeks before hospital admission. We used logistic regression to estimate the effects of NSAIDs and adjust for confounding variables. We used propensity score matching to further estimate effects of NSAIDS while accounting for covariate differences in populations. Results Between Jan 17 and Aug 10, 2020, we enrolled 78 674 patients across 255 health-care facilities in England, Scotland, and Wales. 72 179 patients had death outcomes available for matching; 40 406 (56•2%) of 71 915 were men, 31 509 (43•8%) were women. In this cohort, 4211 (5•8%) patients were recorded as taking systemic NSAIDs before admission to hospital. Following propensity score matching, balanced groups of NSAIDs users and NSAIDs non-users were obtained (4205 patients in each group). At hospital admission, we observed no significant differences in severity between exposure groups. After adjusting for explanatory variables, NSAID use was not associated with worse in-hospital mortality (matched OR 0•95, 95% CI 0•84-1•07; p=0•35), critical care admission (1•01, 0•87-1•17; p=0•89), requirement for invasive ventilation (0•96, 0•80-1•17; p=0•69), requirement for non-invasive ventilation (1•12, 0•96-1•32; p=0•14), requirement for oxygen (1•00, 0•89-1•12; p=0•97), or occurrence of acute kidney injury (1•08, 0•92-1•26; p=0•33). Interpretation NSAID use is not associated with higher mortality or increased severity of COVID-19. Policy makers should consider reviewing issued advice around NSAID prescribing and COVID-19 severity.
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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