Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All vitamin B12 studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin B12Vitamin B12 (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

The role of vitamin B12 in viral infections: a comprehensive review of its relationship with the muscle–gut–brain axis and implications for SARS-CoV-2 infection

Batista et al., Nutrition Reviews, doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuab092
Feb 2022  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
33rd treatment shown to reduce risk in February 2022
 
*, now known with p = 0.023 from 4 studies.
Lower risk for recovery.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Review of the benefits of vitamin B12 for viral infections, including immune modulation, metabolic effects, and symptom relief, summary of previous research, and implications for use with COVID-19.
Batista et al., 5 Feb 2022, prospective, placebo-controlled, Brazil, peer-reviewed, mean age 48.0, 10 authors. Contact: aquinojailane@gmail.com.
This PaperVitamin B12All
The role of vitamin B12 in viral infections: a comprehensive review of its relationship with the muscle–gut–brain axis and implications for SARS-CoV-2 infection
Kamila S Batista, Vanessa M Cintra, Paulo A F Lucena, Raul Manhães-De-Castro, Ana E Toscano, Larissa P Costa, Maria E B S Queiroz, Suellen M De Andrade, Omar Guzman-Quevedo, Jailane De S Aquino
Nutrition Reviews, doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuab092
This comprehensive review establishes the role of vitamin B 12 as adjunct therapy for viral infections in the treatment and persistent symptoms of COVID-19, focusing on symptoms related to the muscle-gut-brain axis. Vitamin B 12 can help balance immune responses to better fight viral infections. Furthermore, data from randomized clinical trials and meta-analysis indicate that vitamin B 12 in the forms of methylcobalamin and cyanocobalamin may increase serum vitamin B 12 levels, and resulted in decreased serum methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations, and decreased pain intensity, memory loss, and impaired concentration. Among studies, there is much variation in vitamin B 12 doses, chemical forms, supplementation time, and administration routes. Larger randomized clinical trials of vitamin B 12 supplementation and analysis of markers such as total vitamin B 12 , holotranscobalamin, total homocysteine and methylmalonic acid, total folic acid, and, if possible, polymorphisms and methylation of genes need to be conducted with people with and without COVID-19 or who have had COVID-19 to facilitate the proper vitamin B 12 form to be administered in individual treatment.
References
Abu-Rumeileh, Abdelhak, Foschi, Guillain-Barr e syndrome spectrum associated with COVID-19: an up-to-date systematic review of 73 cases, J Neurol
Alfawaz, Al-Onazi, Bukhari, The independent and combined effects of omega-3 and vitamin B12 in ameliorating propionic acid induced biochemical features in juvenile rats as rodent model of autism, J Mol Neurosci
Ali, Kunugi, Skeletal muscle damage in COVID-19: a call for action, Medicina
Allegra, Tonacci, Pioggia, Vitamin deficiency as risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection: correlation with susceptibility and prognosis, Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Allen, How common is vitamin B-12 deficiency?, Am J Clin Nutr
Allen, Mailing, Niemiro, Exercise alters gut microbiota composition and function in lean and obese humans, Med Sci Sports Exerc
Allen, Miller, Groot, Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND): vitamin B-12 review, J Nutr
Almeida, Ford, Flicker, Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials of folate and vitamin B12 for depression, Int Psychogeriatr
Andalib, Biller, Napoli, Peripheral nervous system manifestations associated with COVID-19, Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
Andez-De-Las-Peñas, Palacios-Ceña, Omez-Mayordomo, Defining post-COVID symptoms (post-acute COVID, long COVID, persistent post-COVID): an integrative classification, Int J Environ Res Public Health
Antony, Vegetarianism and vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) deficiency, Am J Clin Nutr
Arendt, Sørensen, Horsfall, Elevated vitamin B12 levels and cancer risk in UK primary care: a thin database cohort study, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
Bahouth, Chuang, Olson, COVID-19 related muscle denervation atrophy, Skeletal Radiol
Baldewicz, Goodkin, Blaney, Cobalamin level is related to selfreported and clinically rated mood and to syndromal depression in bereaved HIV-1þ and HIV-1-homosexual men, J Psychosom Res
Balfour, Spaans, Fergusson, Micronutrient deficiency and treatment adherence in a randomized controlled trial of micronutrient supplementation in ART-naı ¨ve persons with HIV, PLoS One
Bates, Schneede, Mishra, Relationship between methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, vitamins B12 intake and status and socio-economic indices, in a subset of participants in the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65y and over, Eur J Clin Nutr
Berger, COVID-19 and the nervous system, J Neurovirol
Bito, Okumura, Fujishima, Potential of Chlorella as a dietary supplement to promote human health, Nutrients
Bito, Tanioka, Watanabe, Characterization of vitamin B12 compounds from marine foods, Fish Sci
Butler, Vidal-Alaball, Cannings-John, Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, Fam Pract
Callard, Perego, How and why patients made long COVID, Soc Sci Med
Cappello, Cereda, Rondanelli, Elevated plasma vitamin B12 concentrations are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in adult patients at nutritional risk, Nutrients
Carf I, Bernabei, Landi, Gemelli Against COVID-19 Post-Acute Care Study Group. Persistent symptoms in patients after acute COVID-19, JAMA
Chen, Huang, Quan, HMGB1 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for severe COVID-19, Heliyon
Cryan, 'riordan, Cowan, The microbiota-gut-brain axis, Physiol Rev
Cucinotta, Vanelli, WHO declares COVID-19 a pandemic, Acta Biomed
Dai, Zhang, Jiang, Structure-based design of antiviral drug candidates targeting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, Science
Dalbeni, Bevilacqua, Teani, Excessive vitamin B12 and poor outcome in COVID-19 pneumonia, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis
Dao, Hoang, Gautret, Recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in recovered COVID-19 patients: a narrative review, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis
De, Morais, Aquino, Silva-Maia, Nutritional status, diet and viral respiratory infections: perspectives for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Br J Nutr
Degnan, Taga, Goodman, Vitamin B12 as a modulator of gut microbial ecology, Cell Metab
Didangelos, Karlafti, Kotzakioulafi, Vitamin B12 supplementation in diabetic neuropathy: a 1-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Nutrients
Erso ¨z, Yılmaz, The association between micronutrient and hemogram values and prognostic factors in COVID-19 patients: a single-center experience from Turkey, Int J Clin Pract
Fettelschoss, Burda, Sagn E C, Clinical or ATPase domain mutations in ABCD4 disrupt the interaction between the vitamin B12-trafficking proteins ABCD4 and LMBD1, J Biol Chem
Figliozzi, Masci, Ahmadi, Predictors of adverse prognosis in COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Eur J Clin Invest
Flores-Guerrero, Minovi C I, Groothof, Association of plasma concentration of vitamin B12 with all-cause mortality in the general population in the Netherlands, JAMA Netw Open
Gille, Schmid, Vitamin B12 in meat and dairy products, Nutr Rev
Grang E, Bekri, Artaud-Macari, Adult-onset renal thrombotic microangiopathy and pulmonary arterial hypertension in cobalamin C deficiency, Lancet
Green, Datta, Megaloblastic anemias: nutritional and other causes, Med Clin North Am
Green, Vitamin B12 deficiency from the perspective of a practicing hematologist, Blood
Greenhalgh, Knight, Court, Management of post-acute COVID-19 in primary care, BMJ
Guest, Bilgin, Hokin, Novel relationships between B12, folate and markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and NAD(H) levels, systemically and in the CNS of a healthy human cohort, Nutr Neurosci
Havervall, Rosell, Phillipson, Symptoms and functional impairment assessed 8 months after mild COVID-19 among health care workers, JAMA
Herrmann, Obeid, Cobalamin deficiency
Herrmann, Obeid, Schorr, Enhanced bone metabolism in vegetariansthe role of vitamin B12 deficiency, Clin Chem Lab Med
Herrmann, Vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians, doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-803968-7.00043-5
Hill, Guarner, Reid, Expert consensus document. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic, Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
Hinkel, Schmitt, Wurm, Elevated plasma vitamin B12 in patients with hepatic glycogen storage diseases, J Clin Med
Huemer, Diodato, Schwahn, Guidelines for diagnosis and management of the cobalamin-related remethylation disorders cblC, cblD, cblE, cblF, cblG, cblJ and MTHFR deficiency, J Inherit Metab Dis
Hughes, Mcnulty, Assessing biomarker status of vitamin B12 in the laboratory: no simple solution, Ann Clin Biochem
Iwarson, Lindberg, Coenzyme-B12 therapy in acute viral hepatitis, Scand J Infect Dis
Jang, Kim, Baek, Clinical course of COVID-19 patients treated with ECMO: a multicenter study in Daegu, South Korea, Hear Lung
Jutzeler, Bourguignon, Weis, Comorbidities, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, imaging features, treatment strategies, and outcomes in adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Travel Med Infect Dis
Kamal, Omirah, Hussein, Assessment and characterisation of post-COVID-19 manifestations, Int J Clin Pract
Kandeel, Al-Nazawi, Virtual screening and repurposing of FDA approved drugs against COVID-19 main protease, Life Sci
Kaur, Sarma, Bhattacharyya, Folic acid as placebo in controlled clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis in COVID-19: is it scientifically justifiable?, Med Hypotheses
Kennedy, B vitamins and the brain: mechanisms, dose and efficacy-a review, Nutrients
Kulkarni, Rajput, Dawre, Severe malnutrition and anemia are associated with severe COVID in infants, J Trop Pediatr
Li, Yu, Liu, Homocysteine directly interacts and activates the angiotensin II type I receptor to aggravate vascular injury, Nat Commun
Lurz, Horne, Vitamin B12 deficiency alters the gut microbiota in a murine model of colitis, Front Nutr
Lurz, Vitamin B12; absorption, metabolism, and deficiency, doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-801238-3.11357-1
Lustgarten, The role of the gut microbiome on skeletal muscle mass and physical function: 2019 update, Front Physiol
Madhubalaji, Rashmi, Chauhan, Improvement of vitamin B12 status with Spirulina supplementation in Wistar rats validated through functional and circulatory markers, J Food Biochem
Madry, Lisowska, Grebowiec, The impact of vegan diet on B-12 status in healthy omnivores: five-year prospective study, Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment
Mahumud, Kamara, Renzaho, The epidemiological burden and overall distribution of chronic comorbidities in coronavirus disease-2019 among 202,005 infected patients: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis, Infection
Majumder, Behera, Jeremic, Hypermethylation: causes and consequences in skeletal muscle myopathy, J Cell Biochem
Manzanares, Hardy, Vitamin B12: the forgotten micronutrient for critical care, Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
Markun, Gravestock, Effects of vitamin B12 supplementation on cognitive function, depressive symptoms, and fatigue: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression, Nutrients
Martineau, Jolliffe, Greenberg, Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: individual participant data meta-analysis, Health Technol Assess
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ
Mauro, Martorana, Cataldo, Vitamin B12 in low back pain: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Mcmillan, Maguire, Talwar, Relationship between nutritional status and the systemic inflammatory response: micronutrients, Proc Nutr Soc
Mikkelsen, Stojanovska, Prakash, The effects of vitamin B on the immune/cytokine network and their involvement in depression, Maturitas
Moscatelli, Sessa, Valenzano, COVID-19: role of nutrition and supplementation, Nutrients
Murthy, Koupenova, Shah, ACEing COVID-19 a role for angiotensin axis inhibition in SARS-CoV-2 infection?, Circ Res
Muscogiuri, Barrea, Savastano, Nutritional recommendations for COVID-19 quarantine, Eur J Clin Nutr
Narayanan, Nair, Ritonavir may inhibit exoribonuclease activity of nsp14 from the SARS-CoV-2 virus and potentiate the activity of chain terminating drugs, Int J Biol Macromol
Narayanan, Nair, Vitamin B12 may inhibit RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase activity of nsp12 from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, IUBMB Life
Naseri, Sarvari, Esmaeeli, High doses of oral folate and sublingual vitamin B12 in dialysis patients with hyperhomocysteinemia, J Renal Inj Prev
Nehme, Borghesan, Mackedenski, C. A scarlet pimpernel for the resolution of inflammation? The role of supra-therapeutic doses of cobalamin, in the treatment of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic or traumatic shock, Med Hypotheses
Nicholson, Holmes, Kinross, Host-gut microbiota metabolic interactions, Science
O'leary, Samman, Vitamin B12 in health and disease, Nutrients
Obeid, Fedosov, Nexo, Cobalamin coenzyme forms are not likely to be superior to cyano-and hydroxyl-cobalamin in prevention or treatment of cobalamin deficiency, Mol Nutr Food Res
Ocka, Folwarski, Zmierczak-Siedlecka, Gut-muscle axis exists and may affect skeletal muscle adaptation to training, Nutrients
Ortelli, Ferrazzoli, Sebastianelli, Neuropsychological and neurophysiological correlates of fatigue in post-acute patients with neurological manifestations of COVID-19: insights into a challenging symptom, J Neurol Sci
Paul, Brady, Comparative bioavailability and utilization of particular forms of B12 supplements with potential to mitigate B12-related genetic polymorphisms, Integr Med (Encinitas)
Pawlak, Lester, Babatunde, The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature, Eur J Clin Nutr
Ponti, Maccaferri, Ruini, Biomarkers associated with COVID-19 disease progression, Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci
Raahimi, Kane, Moore, Late onset of Guillain-Barr e syndrome following SARS-CoV-2 infection: part of "long COVID-19 syndrome, BMJ Case Rep
Remacha, Montagud, Cadafalch, Vitamin B12 transport proteins in patients with HIV-1 infection and AIDS, Haematologica
Rizzo, As, A review of vitamin B12, Molecular Nutrition: Vitamins, doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-811907-5.00005-1
Rizzo, As, Rapisarda, Vitamin B12 among vegetarians: status, assessment and supplementation, Nutrients
Rocco, Compare, Coccoli, Vitamin B12 supplementation improves rates of sustained viral response in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus, Gut
Romain, Sviri, Linton, The role of vitamin B12 in the critically ill -a review, Anaesth Intensive Care
Roth, Lawrence, Bobik, Cobalamin (coenzyme B12): synthesis and biological significance, Annu Rev Microbiol
Sabry, Elemary, Burnouf, Vitamin B12 deficiency and metabolismmediated thrombotic microangiopathy (MM-TMA), Transfus Apher Sci
Schlegel, Novotny, Klimova, Muscle-gut-brain axis": can physical activity help patients with Alzheimer's disease due to microbiome modulation?, J Alzheimers Dis
Scholten, Vermeulen, Dhonukshe-Rutten, Surplus vitamin B12 use does not reduce fatigue in patients with irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, Clin Nutr ESPEN
Semeere, Nakanjako, Ddungu, Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naı ¨ve HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda, PLoS One
Sender, Fuchs, Are we really vastly outnumbered? Revisiting the ratio of bacterial to host cells in humans, Cell
Shipton, Thachil, Vitamin B12 deficiency -a 21st century perspective, Clin Med
Shivakoti, Ewald, Gupte, NWCS 319 and ACTG PEARLS Study Team. Effect of baseline micronutrient and inflammation status on CD4 recovery post-cART initiation in the multinational PEARLS trial, Clin Nutr
Siddiqua, Ahmad, Ahsan, Vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy and postpartum improves B12 status of both mothers and infants but vaccine response in mothers only: a randomized clinical trial in Bangladesh, Eur J Nutr
Singh, Gupta, Kazmi, SARS CoV-2 aggravates cellular metabolism mediated complications in COVID-19 infection, Dermatol Ther
Stabler, Allen, Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem, Annu Rev Nutr
Stein, Geisel, Obeid, Association between neuropathy and B-vitamins: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Eur J Neurol
Sugihara, Koda, Okamoto, Falsely elevated serum vitamin B12 levels were associated with the severity and prognosis of chronic viral liver disease, Yonago Acta Med
Sun, Lai, Lu, Effectiveness of vitamin B12 on diabetic neuropathy: systematic review of clinical controlled trials, Acta Neurol Taiwan
Surendran, Adaikalakoteswari, Saravanan, An update on vitamin B12-related gene polymorphisms and B12 status, Genes Nutr
Sviri, Khalaila, Daher, Increased vitamin B12 levels are associated with mortality in critically ill medical patients, Clin Nutr
Syed, Wasay, Awan, Vitamin B12 supplementation in treating major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial, Open Neurol J
Tal, Shavit, Stern, Association between vitamin B12 levels and mortality in hospitalized older adults, J Am Geriatr Soc
Talaei, Siavash, Majidi, Vitamin B12 may be more effective than nortriptyline in improving painful diabetic neuropathy, Int J Food Sci Nutr
Tamaddonfard, Tamaddonfard, Cheraghiyan, Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of vitamin B12 on formalin-induced muscle pain in rats: role of cyclooxygenase pathway and opioid receptors, Vet Res Forum
Tamura, Kubota, Murakami, Immunomodulation by vitamin B12: augmentation of CD8þ T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cell activity in vitamin B12-deficient patients by methyl-B12 treatment, Clin Exp Immunol
Tan, Ho, Kalimuddin, Cohort study to evaluate effect of vitamin D, magnesium, and vitamin B12 in combination on severe outcome progression in older patients with coronavirus (COVID-19), Nutrition
Taneja, Strand, Kumar, Folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation and common infections in 6-30-mo-old children in India: a randomized placebocontrolled trial, Am J Clin Nutr
Tee, Alhamid, Tan, COVID-19 and undiagnosed pre-diabetes or diabetes mellitus among international migrant workers in Singapore, Front Public Health
Tenforde, Yadav, Dowdy, NWCS319 and ACTG 5175 study team. Vitamin A and D deficiencies associated with incident tuberculosis in HIVinfected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in multinational case-cohort study, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
Ticinesi, Lauretani, Milani, Aging gut microbiota at the cross-road between nutrition, physical frailty, and sarcopenia: is there a gut-muscle axis?, Nutrients
Tinelli, Pino, Ficulle, Hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor and potential nutraceutical target for certain pathologies, Front Nutr
Troen, Folate and vitamin B12: function and importance in cognitive development, Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser
Turnbaugh, Backhed, Fulton, Marked alterations in the distal gut microbiome linked to diet-induced obesity, Cell Host Microbe
Van De Lagemaat, De Groot, Van Den Heuvel, Vitamin B12 in relation to oxidative stress: a systematic review, Nutrients
Vidal-Alaball, Butler, Cannings-John, Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency, Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Volkov, Rudoy, Freud, Effectiveness of vitamin B12 in treating recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, J Am Board Fam Med
Wang, Li, Quin, Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency, Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Wang, Wu, Liu, Vitamin B12 for herpetic neuralgia: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, Complement Ther Med
Watanabe, Yabuta, Bito, Vitamin B12-containing plant food sources for vegetarians, Nutrients
Watanabe, Yabuta, Tanioka, Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects, J Agric Food Chem
Wee, COVID-19's toll on the elderly and those with diabetes mellitus -is vitamin B12 deficiency an accomplice?, Med Hypotheses
Williams, Ladva, Leon, Changes in micronutrient and inflammation serum biomarker concentrations after a norovirus human challenge, Am J Clin Nutr
Wolffenbuttel, Heiner-Fokkema, Green, Relationship between serum B12 concentrations and mortality: experience in NHANES, BMC Med
Wolffenbuttel, Wouters, Heiner-Fokkema, The many faces of cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency, Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes
Wong, Lui, Sung, COVID-19 and the digestive system, J Gastroenterol Hepatol
Wu, Zhang, Li, Associations of dietary vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 with the risk of depression: a systematic review and metaanalysis, Nutr Rev
Yoshii, Hosomi, Sawane, Metabolism of dietary and microbial vitamin B family in the regulation of host immunity, Front Nutr
Young, Garza, Institute of Medicine (US). Vitamin B12. In: Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline
Zafer, El-Mahallawy, Ashour, Severe COVID-19 and sepsis: immune pathogenesis and laboratory markers, Microorganisms
Zhang, He, Yu, The modified NUTRIC score can be used for nutritional risk assessment as well as prognosis prediction in critically ill COVID-19 patients, Clin Nutr
Zheng, Ma, Zhang, COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system, Nat Rev Cardiol
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit