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Vitamin D levels and oxidative stress markers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19

Atanasovska et al., Redox Report, doi:10.1080/13510002.2021.1999126
Nov 2021  
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Mortality 41% Improvement Relative Risk Severe case 59% Vitamin D  Atanasovska et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 33 patients in North Macedonia Lower severe cases with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.13) Atanasovska et al., Redox Report, November 2021 Favorsvitamin D Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 77 treatments.
Retrospective 33 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in North Macedonia, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for severe vs. moderate cases. Oxidative stress was also higher for vitamin D insufficient patients.
This is the 102nd of 198 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 361,397 vigintillion).
risk of death, 40.7% lower, RR 0.59, p = 0.68, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 2 of 9 (22.2%), low D levels (<30ng/mL) 9 of 24 (37.5%), NNT 6.5.
risk of severe case, 59.0% lower, RR 0.41, p = 0.13, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 2 of 9 (22.2%), low D levels (<30ng/mL) 13 of 24 (54.2%), NNT 3.1.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Atanasovska et al., 2 Nov 2021, retrospective, North Macedonia, peer-reviewed, 8 authors. Contact:
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D levels and oxidative stress markers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19
Emilija Atanasovska, Marija Petrusevska, Dragica Zendelovska, Katerina Spasovska, Milena Stevanovikj, Katerina Kasapinova, Kalina Gjorgjievska, Nikola Labachevski
Redox Report, doi:10.1080/13510002.2021.1999126
Background: COVID-19 is characterized by the presence of oxidative stress. Vitamin D status has been reviewed as one of the factors that may affect disease severity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between serum vitamin D levels, oxidative stress markers and disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: Vitamin D levels were measured in 33 patients with COVID-19. The total antioxidant power and plasma peroxides were determined in serum. Results: Severe COVID-19 patients have lower vitamin D levels (18.39 ± 2.29 ng/mL vs. 28.47 ± 3.05 ng/mL, p < .05) and higher oxidative stress compared to the moderate group. When divided according to serum vitamin D levels, significantly higher values of LDH (604.8 ± 76.98 IU/mL vs. 261.57 ± 47.33 IU/mL) and D-dimer (5978 ± 2028ng/mL vs. 977.7 ± 172 ng/mL) were obtained in the group with vitamin D below 30 ng/mL, followed with significantly higher levels of plasma peroxides (d-ROMs: 414.9 ± 15.82 U.Carr vs. 352.4 ± 18.77 U.Carr; p < .05) and oxidative stress index (OSI: 92.25 ± 6.60 vs. 51.89 ± 6.45; p < .001). Conclusion: The presented data provide a justification to consider vitamin D as an important factor that could ameliorate disease severity through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
Author contributions All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission. Disclosure statement No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author(s).
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