Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Vitamin D levels and oxidative stress markers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19

Atanasovska et al., Redox Report, doi:10.1080/13510002.2021.1999126
Nov 2021  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Mortality 41% Improvement Relative Risk Severe case 59% Vitamin D  Atanasovska et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 33 patients in North Macedonia Lower severe cases with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.13) c19early.org Atanasovska et al., Redox Report, November 2021 Favorsvitamin D Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 77 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 33 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in North Macedonia, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for severe vs. moderate cases. Oxidative stress was also higher for vitamin D insufficient patients.
This is the 102nd of 198 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 361,397 vigintillion).
risk of death, 40.7% lower, RR 0.59, p = 0.68, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 2 of 9 (22.2%), low D levels (<30ng/mL) 9 of 24 (37.5%), NNT 6.5.
risk of severe case, 59.0% lower, RR 0.41, p = 0.13, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 2 of 9 (22.2%), low D levels (<30ng/mL) 13 of 24 (54.2%), NNT 3.1.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Atanasovska et al., 2 Nov 2021, retrospective, North Macedonia, peer-reviewed, 8 authors. Contact: marija.petrusevska@medf.ukim.edu.mk.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D levels and oxidative stress markers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19
Emilija Atanasovska, Marija Petrusevska, Dragica Zendelovska, Katerina Spasovska, Milena Stevanovikj, Katerina Kasapinova, Kalina Gjorgjievska, Nikola Labachevski
Redox Report, doi:10.1080/13510002.2021.1999126
Background: COVID-19 is characterized by the presence of oxidative stress. Vitamin D status has been reviewed as one of the factors that may affect disease severity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between serum vitamin D levels, oxidative stress markers and disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: Vitamin D levels were measured in 33 patients with COVID-19. The total antioxidant power and plasma peroxides were determined in serum. Results: Severe COVID-19 patients have lower vitamin D levels (18.39 ± 2.29 ng/mL vs. 28.47 ± 3.05 ng/mL, p < .05) and higher oxidative stress compared to the moderate group. When divided according to serum vitamin D levels, significantly higher values of LDH (604.8 ± 76.98 IU/mL vs. 261.57 ± 47.33 IU/mL) and D-dimer (5978 ± 2028ng/mL vs. 977.7 ± 172 ng/mL) were obtained in the group with vitamin D below 30 ng/mL, followed with significantly higher levels of plasma peroxides (d-ROMs: 414.9 ± 15.82 U.Carr vs. 352.4 ± 18.77 U.Carr; p < .05) and oxidative stress index (OSI: 92.25 ± 6.60 vs. 51.89 ± 6.45; p < .001). Conclusion: The presented data provide a justification to consider vitamin D as an important factor that could ameliorate disease severity through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
Author contributions All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission. Disclosure statement No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author(s).
References
Aihara, Azuma, Akaike, Disruption of nuclear vitamin D receptor gene causes enhanced thrombogenicity in mice, J Biol Chem
Alamdari, Moghaddam, Amini, Application of methylene blue -vitamin C -N-acetyl cysteine for treatment of critically ill COVID-19 patients, report of a phase-I clinical trial, Eur J Pharmacol
Baktash, Hosack, Patel, Vitamin D status and outcomes for hospitalised older patients with COVID-19, Postgrad Med J
Carpagnano, Lecce, Quaranta, Vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19, J Endocrinol Invest
Cecchini, Cecchini, SARS-CoV-2 infection pathogenesis is related to oxidative stress as a response to aggression, Med Hypotheses
Chang, 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin d decreases tertiary butyl-hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and increases AMPK/SIRT1 activation in C2C12 muscle cells, Molecules
Charoenngam, Holick, Immunologic effects of vitamin D on human health and disease, Nutrients
D'avolio, Avataneo, Manca, 25-Hydroxyvitamin d concentrations are lower in patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2, Nutrients
Dancer, Parekh, Lax, Vitamin D deficiency contributes directly to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), Thorax
Delgado-Roche, Mesta, Oxidative stress as key player in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection, Arch Med Res
Garcion, Sindji, Leblondel, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d3 regulates the synthesis of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and glutathione levels in rat primary astrocytes, J Neurochem
Heras N Dl, Giménez, Ferder, Implications of oxidative stress and potential role of mitochondrial dysfunction in COVID-19: therapeutic effects of vitamin D, Antioxidants
Holick, The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention, Rev Endocr Metab Disord
Hussien, El-Wakeel, Souror, Alleviation of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress underlies the protective effect of vitamin D in chronic stress-induced cardiac dysfunction in rats, Gen Physiol Biophys
Hwang, Hsu, Lim, Increased vitamin D is associated with decline of naïve, but accumulation of effector, CD8T cells during early aging, Adv Aging Res
Im, Je, Baek, Nutritional status of patients with COVID-19, Int J Infect Dis
Ionica, Aburel, Vaduva, Vitamin D alleviates oxidative stress in adipose tissue and mesenteric vessels from obese patients with subclinical inflammation, Can J Physiol Pharmacol
Laforge, Elbim, Frère, Tissue damage from neutrophilinduced oxidative stress in COVID-19, Nat Rev Immunol
Liu, Stenger, Li, Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response, Science
Longoni, Kolling, Santos, 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin d3 exerts neuroprotective effects in anex vivomodel of mild hyperhomocysteinemia, Int J Dev Neurosci
Macaya, Paeres, Valls, Interaction between age and vitamin D deficiency in severe COVID-19 infection, Nutr Hosp
Mamani, Muceli, Basir, Association between serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and communityacquired pneumonia: a case-control study, Int J Gen Med
Mao, Hu, Zhou, Vitamin D levels correlate with lymphocyte subsets in elderly patients with age-related diseases, Sci Rep
Martineau, Jolliffe, Greenberg, Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: individual participant data meta-analysis, Health Technol Assess
Mohammed, Mirshafiey, Vahedi, Immunoregulation of inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines by vitamin D3 in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, Scand J Immunol
Mp, COVID-19 infection and oxidative stress: an under-explored approach for prevention and treatment?, Pan Afr Med J
Munshi, Hussein, Toraih, Vitamin D insufficiency as a potential culprit in critical COVID-19 patients, J Med Virol
Okazaki, Ozono, Fukumoto, Assessment criteria for vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in Japan -proposal by an expert panel supported by research program of intractable
Panagiotou, Tee, Ihsan, Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are associated with greater disease severity, Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)
Pender, CD8+ T-Cell deficiency, Epstein-Barr virus infection, vitamin D deficiency, and steps to autoimmunity: a unifying hypothesis, Autoimmune Dis
Peterson, Heffernan, Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations are negatively correlated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in healthy women, J Inflamm (Lond)
Poggiali, Zaino, Immovilli, Lactate dehydrogenase and Creactive protein as predictors of respiratory failure in CoVID-19 patients, Clin Chim Acta
Radujkovic, Hippchen, Tiwari-Heckler, Vitamin D deficiency and outcome of COVID-19 patients, Nutrients
Razdan, Singh, Singh, Vitamin D levels and COVID-19 susceptibility: Is there any correlation?, Medicine in Drug Discovery
Schönrich, Raftery, Samstag, Devilishly radical NETwork in COVID-19: oxidative stress, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and T cell suppression, Adv Biol Regul
Sepulveda, Challenges in routine clinical chemistry analysis: proteins and enzymes
Shenoy, Coronavirus (covid-19) sepsis: revisiting mitochondrial dysfunction in pathogenesis, aging, inflammation, and mortality, Inflamm Res
Siddiqui, Manansala, Abdulrahman, Immune modulatory effects of vitamin D on viral infections, Nutrients
Sturza, Văduva, Uțu, Vitamin D improves vascular function and decreases monoamine oxidase A expression in experimental diabetes, Mol Cell Biochem
Suhail, Zajac, Fossum, Role of oxidative stress on SARS-CoV (SARS) and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection: a review, Protein J
Uberti, Lattuada, Morsanuto, Vitamin D protects human endothelial cells from oxidative stress through the autophagic and survival pathways, J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Wang, Wang, Xu, Vitamin D improves immune function in immunosuppressant mice induced by glucocorticoid, Biomed Rep
Wu-Wong, Nakane, Ma, Vitamin D analogs modulate the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, thrombospondin-1 and thrombomodulin in human aortic smooth muscle cells, J Vasc Res
Zhu, Liu, Wang, Active form of vitamin D ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by alleviating oxidative stress in a high-fat diet rat model, Endocr J
{ 'indexed': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 10, 25]], 'date-time': '2023-10-25T17:59:32Z', 'timestamp': 1698256772191}, 'reference-count': 47, 'publisher': 'Informa UK Limited', 'issue': '1', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 1]], 'date-time': '2021-01-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1609459200000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': ['www.tandfonline.com'], 'crossmark-restriction': True}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 1]]}, 'DOI': '10.1080/13510002.2021.1999126', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 11, 2]], 'date-time': '2021-11-02T20:10:49Z', 'timestamp': 1635883849000}, 'page': '184-189', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/tandf_crossmark_01', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 7, 'title': 'Vitamin D levels and oxidative stress markers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19', 'prefix': '10.1080', 'volume': '26', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4596-9563', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Emilija', 'family': 'Atanasovska', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Faculty of Medicine, University of Ss Cyril and Methodius, ' 'Institute of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology and ' 'Toxicology, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3785-1285', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Marija', 'family': 'Petrusevska', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Faculty of Medicine, University of Ss Cyril and Methodius, ' 'Institute of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology and ' 'Toxicology, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4675-6340', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Dragica', 'family': 'Zendelovska', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Faculty of Medicine, University of Ss Cyril and Methodius, ' 'Institute of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology and ' 'Toxicology, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4614-9842', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Katerina', 'family': 'Spasovska', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Intensive Care Unit, University Clinic for Infectious Diseases ' 'and Febrile Conditions, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia'}]}, { 'given': 'Milena', 'family': 'Stevanovikj', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Intensive Care Unit, University Clinic for Infectious Diseases ' 'and Febrile Conditions, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia'}]}, { 'given': 'Katerina', 'family': 'Kasapinova', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Intensive Care Unit, University Surgery Clinic ‘St.Naum ' "Ohridski', Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia"}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5750-4398', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Kalina', 'family': 'Gjorgjievska', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Faculty of Medicine, University of Ss Cyril and Methodius, ' 'Institute of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology and ' 'Toxicology, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia'}]}, { 'given': 'Nikola', 'family': 'Labachevski', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Faculty of Medicine, University of Ss Cyril and Methodius, ' 'Institute of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology and ' 'Toxicology, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia'}]}], 'member': '301', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 11, 2]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': 'CIT0001', 'unstructured': 'https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/. Accessed on October 18, ' '2021, 10:31 GMT.'}, { 'key': '#cr-split#-CIT0002.1', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organization. (2020). Naming the Coronavirus Disease ' '(COVID-19) and the Virus that Causes it [Internet]. Geneva ' '(Switzerland): WHO'}, { 'key': '#cr-split#-CIT0002.2', 'unstructured': '2020 [cited 2020 May 21]. Available from: ' 'https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/ ' 'novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the-coronavirus-disease-(covid-2019)-and-the-virus-that-causes-it.'}, {'key': 'CIT0003', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3892/br.2016.817'}, {'key': 'CIT0004', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12072097'}, { 'key': 'CIT0005', 'first-page': '189096', 'volume': '2012', 'author': 'Pender MP.', 'year': '2012', 'journal-title': 'Autoimmune Dis'}, {'key': 'CIT0006', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.4236/aar.2013.22010'}, {'key': 'CIT0007', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3310/hta23020'}, {'key': 'CIT0008', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.2147/IJGM.S149049'}, {'key': 'CIT0009', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206680'}, {'key': 'CIT0010', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12051359'}, {'key': 'CIT0011', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100051'}, {'key': 'CIT0012', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.26360'}, {'key': 'CIT0013', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/antiox9090897'}, {'key': 'CIT0014', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jbior.2020.100741'}, {'key': 'CIT0015', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41577-020-0407-1'}, { 'key': 'CIT0016', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.2.22877'}, {'key': 'CIT0017', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.arcmed.2020.04.019'}, {'key': 'CIT0018', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110102'}, {'key': 'CIT0019', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173494'}, {'key': 'CIT0020', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s11154-017-9424-1'}, { 'key': 'CIT0021', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1', 'DOI': '10.1507/endocrj.EJ16-0548', 'volume': '64', 'author': 'Okazaki R', 'year': '2017', 'journal-title': 'Endocr J'}, {'key': 'CIT0022', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018'}, {'key': 'CIT0023', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12092757'}, {'key': 'CIT0024', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1111/cen.14276'}, { 'key': 'CIT0025', 'first-page': '1039', 'volume': '37', 'author': 'Macaya F', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Nutr Hosp'}, {'key': 'CIT0026', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s40618-020-01370-x'}, {'key': 'CIT0027', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12092879'}, {'key': 'CIT0028', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1126/science.1123933'}, {'key': 'CIT0029', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41598-018-26064-6'}, {'key': 'CIT0030', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cca.2020.06.012'}, { 'key': 'CIT0031', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/B978-0-12-415783-5.00009-8'}, { 'key': 'CIT0032', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '442', 'DOI': '10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138712', 'volume': '97', 'author': 'Baktash V', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Postgrad Med J'}, {'key': 'CIT0033', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1111/sji.12547'}, {'key': 'CIT0034', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1186/1476-9255-5-10'}, {'key': 'CIT0035', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1159/000097812'}, {'key': 'CIT0036', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1074/jbc.M404865200'}, {'key': 'CIT0037', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.4149/gpb_2018036'}, {'key': 'CIT0038', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1507/endocrj.EJ16-0542'}, {'key': 'CIT0039', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s11010-018-3429-2'}, {'key': 'CIT0040', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1139/cjpp-2019-0340'}, {'key': 'CIT0041', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2015.11.005'}, {'key': 'CIT0042', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/molecules24213903'}, {'key': 'CIT0043', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1210/jc.2013-2103'}, { 'key': 'CIT0044', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1046/j.1471-4159.1999.0730859.x'}, {'key': 'CIT0045', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s00011-020-01389-z'}, {'key': 'CIT0046', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s10930-020-09935-8'}], 'container-title': 'Redox Report', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13510002.2021.1999126', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 1, 14]], 'date-time': '2023-01-14T10:12:38Z', 'timestamp': 1673691158000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13510002.2021.1999126'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 1]]}, 'references-count': 47, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '1', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 1]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['10.1080/13510002.2021.1999126'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13510002.2021.1999126', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['1351-0002', '1743-2928'], 'subject': [ 'Biochemistry (medical)', 'Cell Biology', 'Clinical Biochemistry', 'Physiology', 'Biochemistry'], 'container-title-short': 'Redox Report', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 1]]}, 'assertion': [ { 'value': 'The publishing and review policy for this title is described in its Aims & ' 'Scope.', 'order': 1, 'name': 'peerreview_statement', 'label': 'Peer Review Statement'}, { 'value': 'http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?show=aimsScope&journalCode=yrer20', 'URL': 'http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?show=aimsScope&journalCode=yrer20', 'order': 2, 'name': 'aims_and_scope_url', 'label': 'Aim & Scope'}, { 'value': '2021-11-02', 'order': 3, 'name': 'published', 'label': 'Published', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}]}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit