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A Comparative Study of Serum Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Cr, and Fe Levels and Their Association with the Vulnerability of Iraqi COVID-19 Patients

Al-Fartusie et al., Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2023.127242
Jun 2023  
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Retrospective 40 COVID-19 patients, 40 patients post COVID-19 recovery, and 40 healthy controls in Iraq, showing significantly lower zinc levels in COVID-19 patients.
Al-Fartusie et al., 13 Jun 2023, Iraq, peer-reviewed, 6 authors, study period October 2021 - March 2022. Contact:
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A comparative study of serum Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Cr, and Fe levels and their association with the vulnerability of Iraqi COVID-19 patients
Falah S Al-Fartusie, Safaa I Kader, Sara Jassim Mohammed, Majeed N Farhan, Fahim Muhsin Mahmood, Anwar A Algaber
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2023.127242
Background: For the immune system to protect the body from infectious diseases such as COVID-19, it needs the ideal amount of vital trace elements. Trace element levels, especially, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), and iron (Fe) levels, may affect how sensitive an individual is to COVID-19 and other viruses. The current study evaluated the level of those trace elements during stays in the isolation center and investigated their association with vulnerability to COVID-19. Methods: A total of 120 individuals, 49 males and 71 females aged between 20 and 60 years, were included in this study. Forty individuals infected with COVID-19, 40 individuals who had recovered from it, and 40 healthy individuals, were all evaluated and studied. By using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer, levels of Zn, Cu, and Mg were assessed for all samples, whereas levels of Mn, and Cr were determined by a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The infected individuals had significantly lower levels of Zn, Mg, Mn, Cr, and Fe than recovered individuals and healthy control individuals (P < 0.0001). On the other hand, the total number of infected patients was found to have much higher levels of Cu than those in the recovered group and the control group. For the recovered and healthy control groups, no significant differences were observed in the levels of trace elements (P > 0.05), except for Zn (P < 0.01). Also, the findings indicated no association of trace elements with age and BMI (P > 0.05). Conclusion: These results show that an imbalance in the levels of essential trace elements could be associated with increasing the risk of COVID-19 infection. However, additional thorough research of greater scope is required considering the severity of the infection.
Ethical Approval All procedures performed in studies involving human Participants were following the ethical standards of the research committee of Mustansiriyah University and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Statements & declarations The authors declare that no funds, grants, or other support were received during the preparation of this manuscript. Compliance with Ethical Standards Conflict of Interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Informed Consent Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. CRediT authorship contribution statement All authors contributed to the study's conception and design. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by the authors. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Safaa Kader and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Declaration of Competing Interest The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose. Appendix A. Supporting information Supplementary data associated with this article can be found in the online version at doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2023.127242.
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