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Factors Affecting the Incidence, Progression, and Severity of COVID-19 in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Ahmed et al., BioMed Research International, doi:10.1155/2021/1676914
Nov 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
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Retrospective type 1 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia showing that mean vitamin D levels were significantly lower in type 1 diabetes patients with COVID-19 than in type 1 diabetes patients without COVID-19, or in a control group of patients without type 1 diabetes.
Study covers vitamin D and HCQ.
Ahmed et al., 23 Nov 2021, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Factors Affecting the Incidence, Progression, and Severity of COVID-19 in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Amira S Ahmed, Wejdan S Alotaibi, Maha A Aldubayan, Ahmad H Alhowail, Amal H Al-Najjar, Sridevi Chigurupati, Rehab M Elgharabawy
BioMed Research International, doi:10.1155/2021/1676914
Objectives. This study screened for factors affecting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients, appraised vitamin D's efficacy in preventing COVID-19, and assessed the effects of clinical characteristics, glycemic status, vitamin D, and hydroxychloroquine administration on COVID-19's progression and severity in T1DM patients. Methods. This retrospective research on 150 adults was conducted at Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. Participants were allocated to three groups (50/group): control, T1DM, and T1DM with COVID-19. Participants' fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), complete blood count, vitamin D, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, D-dimer, liver and kidney function, and hydroxychloroquine treatment were retrieved and analyzed. Results. The percentages of comorbidities and not taking hydroxychloroquine were significantly higher among T1DM patients with COVID-19 than patients with T1DM only. Mean vitamin D level was significantly lower in T1DM with COVID-19 patients than in the other two groups. Vitamin D showed a significant negative correlation with LDH, CRP, ESR, ferritin, and D-dimer, which was the most reliable predictor of COVID-19 severity in T1DM patients. Conclusion. Comorbidities and vitamin D deficiency are risk factors for COVID-19 in patients with T1DM. Patients who do not take hydroxychloroquine and have higher FBG and HbA1c levels are vulnerable to COVID-19. Vitamin D may be useful for preventing COVID-19 in T1DM patients. Comorbidities, higher FBG and HbA1c levels, not taking hydroxychloroquine, and vitamin D inadequacy elevate COVID-19 progression and severity in patients with T1DM.
Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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