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The Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index with Risk of Coronavirus Infection and Severity: A Case-Control Study

Tavassoli et al., International Journal of Preventive Medicine, doi:10.4103/ijpvm.ijpvm_129_21
Feb 2023  
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Case control study in Iran with 100 COVID-19 cases and 100 healthy controls, showing no significant association between DII score and cases or symptoms. Results are only provided for DII as a continuous variable. COVID‐19 patients had a higher mean DII score, and significantly higher intake of total fat and saturated fat.
Tavassoli et al., 18 Feb 2023, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
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The Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index with Risk of Coronavirus Infection and Severity: A Case-Control Study Original Article
Dr Saeid Hadi, Mohammad Tavassoli, Gholamreza Askari, Morad Vahid Hadi, Esmaeil Zali, Cain C T Clark, Dr Sayid Mahdi Mirghazanfari
Background: Recently, several have evaluated the association between the components of the dietary inflammatory index (DII) score with the risk and severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). For the first time, we examined the association between DII ® with risk of coronavirus infection and symptom severity through a case-control study in Iran. Methods: The present case-control study was conducted on COVID-19 cases (n = 100) and healthy control (n = 100) volunteer, aged from 18 to 65 years. Dietary intake, DII, body mass index, COVID-19 infection, and the severity of its symptoms were assessed for each participant. A multivariable logistic regression analysis test was used to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Results: Our results demonstrated that COVID-19-infected patients were significantly older and had longer history of diabetes as compared to the healthy control group (P <.05). Furthermore, the participants with COVID-19 had a significantly greater intake of total fat (P =0.259), saturated fat (P =0.005), and dietary fiber (P = .004). In contrast, individuals in the healthy control group had a higher intake of carbohydrate (P = .005), sodium (P <.001), and iron (P <.001). However, there was no significant difference in DII score between COVID-19 and healthy controls (P =.259). In addition, we did not detect any specific association between DII score and risk of COVID-19 infection (odds ratio = 1.08, 95% confidence interval: 0.92 to 1.27; P =.294) and the severity of its symptoms (P >.05). Conclusions: There appears to be no specific association between DII score and risk of COVID-19 infection and the severity of its symptoms. More prospective cohort studies are necessary to confirm the veracity of our results.
Declaration of patient consent The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed. Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest.
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