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Summary of COVID-19 vitamin B9 studies

Studies   Meta Analysis   Hide extended summaries

363 patient vitamin B9 prophylaxis RCT: 88% fewer cases (p<0.0001).
Cluster RCT 526 healthcare workers in Egypt, showing lower COVID-19 cases with folic acid supplementation, and a dose-response relationship. Each wave of health care workers was randomized within 14 day isolation periods, introducing potential confounding by time.

Nov 2022, Microbes and Infectious Diseases,,

7,766 patient vitamin B9 prophylaxis study: 16% fewer cases (p=0.02).
Analysis of 7,766 adults in France, showing higher intakes of vitamin C, folate, vitamin K, dietary fibre, and fruit and vegetables associated with lower seropositivity.

Nov 2021, BMC Medicine,,

2,148 patient vitamin B9 prophylaxis study: 28% lower hospitalization (p=0.23) and 28% lower severe cases (p=0.16).
Retrospective 2,148 COVID-19 recovered patients in Jordan, showing lower risk of severity and hospitalization with vitamin B9 prophylaxis, without statistical significance.

Feb 2022, Bosnian J. Basic Medical Sciences,,

334 patient vitamin B9 prophylaxis study: 27% lower mortality (p=0.54) and 6% lower combined mortality/intubation (p=0.88).
Retrospective 333 hospitalized patients in Israel, showing no significant difference in outcomes with low folate levels or with folic acid supplementation.

Mar 2021, Nutrients,,

9,267 patient vitamin B9 prophylaxis study: 9% lower mortality (p=0.87), 1% lower ventilation (p=0.99), and 17% lower ICU admission (p=0.7).
Retrospective 9,748 COVID-19 patients in the USA showing no significant differences with vitamin B9 use, without statistical significance.

Feb 2021, Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics,,

15,968 patient vitamin B9 prophylaxis study: 1% lower mortality (p=0.88).
Retrospective 15,968 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Spain, showing no significant difference in mortality with existing use of folic acid. Since only hospitalized patients are included, results do not reflect different probabilities of hospitalization across treatments.

Aug 2022, Virology J.,,

vitamin B9 prophylaxis study: no change in cases (p=1).
Retrospective 26,121 cases and 2,369,020 controls ≥65yo in Canada, showing no significant difference in cases with chronic use of vitamin B9.

Mar 2022, Open Forum Infectious Diseases,,

10,000 patient vitamin B9 prophylaxis study: 18% more cases (p=0.29).
Retrospective 10,000 adults in Qatar, showing higher risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin B9 supplementation, without statistical significance. Authors do not analyze COVID-19 severity.

Nov 2023, Nutrients,,

8,570 patient vitamin B9 prophylaxis study: 87% higher mortality (p<0.0001).
Retrospective 8,570 individuals in Spain and Italy, showing higher mortality with combined vitamin B9 and B12 supplementation. Adjustments only considered age.

Nov 2021, Int. J. Environmental Research and Public Health,,

vitamin B9 prophylaxis PSM study: 132% higher mortality (p=0.003).
PSM retrospective 3,712 hospitalized patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with existing use of azithromycin, bemiparine, budesonide-formoterol fumarate, cefuroxime, colchicine, enoxaparin, ipratropium bromide, loratadine, mepyramine theophylline acetate, oral rehydration salts, and salbutamol sulphate, and higher mortality with acetylsalicylic acid, digoxin, folic acid, mirtazapine, linagliptin, enalapril, atorvastatin, and allopurinol.

Jan 2022, Pharmaceuticals,,

376,254 patient vitamin B9 prophylaxis study: 164% higher mortality (p<0.0001) and 51% more cases (p<0.0001).
UK Biobank retrospective showing higher cases and mortality with folic acid supplementation.

Aug 2022, BMJ Open,,
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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