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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Deficient synthesis of melatonin in COVID-19 can impair the resistance of coronavirus patients to mucormycosis

Sen, A., OSF Preprints, doi:0.31219/osf.io/xw3np
Jul 2021  
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Melatonin for COVID-19
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Proposal that melatonin deficiency plays a significant role in COVID-19 associated mucormycosis.
Sen et al., 2 Jul 2021, preprint, 1 author.
This PaperMelatoninAll
Deficient synthesis of melatonin in COVID-19 can impair the resistance of coronavirus patients to mucormycosis
Amarnath Sen
Though it is thought that uncontrolled diabetes and the excessive use of corticosteroids are responsible for COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM), researchers are on the lookout for additional reasons to explain the recent spurt of CAM in India. In the present paper it is argued that melatonin deficiency in COVID-19 plays a major role in CAM. Incidentally, melatonin is synthesized from tryptophan via the serotonin pathway and melatonin deficiency in COVID-19 arises from the faulty absorption of tryptophan from the food because SARS-COV-2 downregulates angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, which is the chaperone of the transporter of tryptophan, a key component in the process of uptake of tryptophan. The melatonin deficiency enhances the fungal virulence by facilitating iron acquisition and by promoting morphological transition of the mucor species from the yeast to the virulent hyphal form. Additionally, melatonin deficiency aggravates the suppression of T-cell immunity in the patients receiving steroids. Hence, the restoration of melatonin level should resolve the issues and help in defeating CAM, given the fact that melatonin is an iron chelator, inhibitor of myeloperoxidase, inhibitor of ferroptosis and pyroptosis and calmodulin blocker. Also, by lowering the expression of glucose-regulated protein-78, melatonin can further increase the resistance of diabetic patients to mucormycosis. Hence, clinical trials should be carried out to ascertain how tryptophan supplementation, administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (to increase serotonin, the precursor of melatonin), and exogenous melatonin help in correcting the melatonin deficiency and eliminating or reducing the propensity of the patients to CAM.
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