Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All chlorhexidine studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchChlorhexidineChlorhexidine (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Azvudine Meta Metformin Meta
Bromhexine Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Famotidine Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Favipiravir Meta Paxlovid Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   All Outcomes   Recent:  

Efficacy of different mouthwashes against COVID-19: A systematic review and network meta-analysis

Sbricoli et al., Japanese Dental Science Review, doi:10.1016/j.jdsr.2023.09.003, PROSPERO CRD42022318922
Oct 2023  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Systematic review and network meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of antiseptic mouthwashes in reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva based on data from 14 randomized clinical trials and 21 in vitro studies. The study found that the most commonly tested mouthwash was chlorhexidine, either alone or in combination with other active ingredients, followed by povidone-iodine, hydrogen peroxide, and cetylpyridinium chloride. The descriptive analysis indicated that mouthwashes are effective in reducing salivary viral load, both in clinical settings and in vitro. The network meta-analysis showed a high degree of heterogeneity. Chlorhexidine 0.20% demonstrated a significant increase in cycle threshold (Ct) in saliva five minutes after rinsing compared to a non-active control, while improvements for other mouthwashes were not statistically significant. Authors note that while data suggests the antiviral efficacy of commonly used mouthwashes, large, well-balanced trials are necessary to establish the best rinsing protocols​​.
This study includes povidone-iodine, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, and hydrogen peroxide.
Sbricoli et al., 11 Oct 2023, peer-reviewed, 6 authors, trial PROSPERO CRD42022318922.
All Studies   All Outcomes   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperChlorhexidineAll
Efficacy of different mouthwashes against COVID-19: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Luca Sbricoli, Lucia Schiavon, Giulia Brunello, Paola Brun, Kathrin Becker, Stefano Sivolella
Japanese Dental Science Review, doi:10.1016/j.jdsr.2023.09.003
To evaluate the effectiveness of antiseptic mouthwashes in reducing SARS-CoV-2 load clinically and in vitro. A systematic electronic search (MEDLINE/Scopus/Cochrane) was conducted to identify prospective clinical and in vitro studies published between 2019 included and 16 June 2023 assessing the effectiveness of mouthwashes in reducing SARS-CoV-2 load in saliva or surrogates. Data were summarized in tables and a network meta-analysis was performed for clinical trials. Thirty-five studies (14 RCTs, 21 in vitro) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The risk of bias was judged to be high for 2 clinical and 7 in vitro studies. The most commonly test product was chlorhexidine alone or in combination with other active ingredients, followed by povidone-iodine, hydrogen peroxide and cetylpyridinium chloride. Overall, the descriptive analysis revealed the effectiveness of the mouthwashes in decreasing the salivary viral load both clinically and in vitro. Network meta-analysis demonstrated a high degree of heterogeneity. Among these studies, only chlorhexidine 0.20% was associated to a significant Ct increase in the saliva 5 min after rinsing compared to non-active control (p = 0.027). Data from clinical and in vitro studies suggested the antiviral efficacy of commonly used mouthwashes. Large well-balanced trials are needed to identify the best rinsing protocols.
Conflict of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Adl, Sedigh-Shams, Jamalidoust, Rajabzadeh, Evaluating the effect of gargling with hydrogen peroxide and povidone-iodine on salivary viral load of SARS-CoV-2: a pilot randomized clinical trial, Niger J Clin Pr
Alemany, Perez-Zsolt, Raïch-Regué, Muñoz-Basagoiti, Ouchi et al., Cetylpyridinium chloride mouthwash to reduce shedding of infectious SARS-CoV-2: a double-blind randomized clinical trial, J Dent Res
Almanza-Reyes, Moreno, Plascencia-López, Alvarado-Vera, Patrón-Romero et al., Evaluation of silver nanoparticles for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in health workers: In vitro and in vivo, PloS One
Alzahrani, Bamashmous, Alkharobi, Alghamdi, Alharbi et al., Mouth rinses efficacy on salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load: a randomized clinical trial, J Med Virol
Amoah, Quakyi, Sagoe, Ayettey-Anie, Ayettey-Adamafio et al., Re: Oral antiseptics against coronavirus: in-vitro and clinical evidence, J Hosp Infect
Anderson, Patterson, Richards, Pitol, Edwards et al., CPC-containing oral rinses inactivate SARS-CoV-2 variants and are active in the presence of human saliva, J Med Microbiol
Anderson, Sivalingam, Kang, Ananthanarayanan, Arumugam et al., Povidone-iodine demonstrates rapid in vitro virucidal activity against SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19 disease, Infect Dis Ther
Arefin, Rumi, Uddin, Banu, Khan et al., Virucidal effect of povidone iodine on COVID-19 in the nasopharynx: an open-label randomized clinical trial, Indian J Otolaryngol Head neck Surg: Publ Assoc Otolaryngol India
Avhad, Bhanushali, Sachdev, Save, Kalra, Comparison of effectiveness of chlorine dioxide mouthwash and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in reduction of oral viral load in patients with covid-19, Indian J Public Health Res Dev
Barrueco, Moreno, Aubá, González, Castaño et al., In vivo effect of mouthwashes on viable viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva: a pilot study, J Oral Microbiol
Barrueco, Moreno, Martínez-Beneyto, García-Vázquez, González et al., Effect of oral antiseptics in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity: evidence from a randomized double-blind clinical trial, Emerg Microbes Infect
Becker, Gurzawska-Comis, Brunello, Klinge, Summary of European guidelines on infection control and prevention during COVID-19 pandemic, Clin Oral Implants Res
Bencze, Temesfői, Das, Papp, Kaltenecker et al., Development of a novel, entirely herbal-based mouthwash effective against common oral bacteria and SARS-CoV-2, BMC Complement Med Ther
Bidra, Pelletier, Westover, Frank, Brown et al., Comparison of in vitro inactivation of SARS CoV-2 with hydrogen peroxide and povidoneiodine oral antiseptic rinses, J Prosthodont: J Am Coll Prosthodont
Bidra, Pelletier, Westover, Frank, Brown et al., Rapid in-vitro inactivation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using povidone-iodine oral antiseptic rinse, J Prosthodont: J Am Coll Prosthodont
Bonn, Rohrhofer, Audebert, Lang, Auer et al., Efficacy of a mouthwash containing CHX and CPC in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients: a randomized controlled clinical trial, J Dent Res
Brunello, Gurzawska-Comis, Becker, Becker, Sivolella et al., Dental care during COVID-19 pandemic: Follow-up survey of experts' opinion, Clin Oral Implants Res
Buonavoglia, Lanave, Marchi, Lorusso, Montomoli et al., In vitro virucidal activity of mouthwashes on SARS-CoV-2, Oral Dis
Capetti, Borgonovo, Morena, Lupo, Cossu et al., Shortterm inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by hydrogen peroxide in persistent nasopharyngeal carriers, J Med Virol
Carrouel, Gadea, Esparcieux, Dimet, Langlois et al., Saliva quantification of SARS-CoV-2 in real-time PCR from asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 adults, Front Microbiol
Carrouel, Valette, Gadea, Esparcieux, Illes et al., Use of an antiviral mouthwash as a barrier measure in the SARS-CoV-2 transmission in adults with asymptomatic to mild COVID-19: a multicentre, randomized, doubleblind controlled trial, Clin Microbiol Infect: Publ Eur Soc Clin Microbiol Infect Dis
Chalageri, Bhushan, Saraswathi, Ranganath, Rani et al., Impact of Steam Inhalation, Saline Gargling, and Povidone-Iodine Gargling on Clinical Outcome of COVID-19 Patients in Bengaluru, Karnataka: A Randomized Control Trial, Indian J Community Med
Chaudhary, Melkonyan, Meethil, Saraswat, Hall et al., Estimating salivary carriage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in nonsymptomatic people and efficacy of mouthrinse in reducing viral load: A randomized controlled trial, J Am Dent Assoc
Chen, Chang, The effectiveness of mouthwash against SARS-CoV-2 infection: A review of scientific and clinical evidence, J Formos Med Assoc = Taiwan yi zhi
Chen, Ma, Wang, Wang, Zhuang et al., Disinfection effect of hexadecyl pyridinium chloride on SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, Intervirology
Costa, Brites, Vaz, De Santana, Santos et al., Chlorhexidine mouthwash reduces the salivary viral load of SARS-CoV-2: a randomized clinical trial, Oral Dis
Da, Santos, Da Fonseca Orcina, Machado, Vilhena et al., Beneficial effects of a mouthwash containing an antiviral phthalocyanine derivative on the length of hospital stay for COVID-19: randomised trial, Sci Rep
Davies, Buczkowski, Welch, Green, Mawer et al., Effective in vitro inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by commercially available mouthwashes, J Gen Virol
Dersimonian, Laird, Meta-analysis in clinical trials, Control Clin Trials
Domênico, Cesca, Ponciano, Santos, Lenz et al., Effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide as auxiliary treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Brazil: preliminary results of a randomized double-blind clinical trial, Epidemiol Health
Domênico, Collares, Santos, Lenz, Antunes et al., Hydrogen peroxide as an auxiliary treatment for COVID-19 in Brazil: a randomized double-blind clinical trial, Epidemiol Health
Ebrahimi, Shamshiri, Alebouyeh, Mohebbi, Effectiveness of mouthwashes on reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral load in oral cavity: a systematic review and meta-analysis, BMC Oral Health
Eduardo, Corrêa, Heller, Daep, Benitez et al., Salivary SARS-CoV-2 load reduction with mouthwash use: a randomized pilot clinical trial, Heliyon
Eggers, Jungke, Wolkinger, Bauer, Kessler et al., Antiviral activity of plant juices and green tea against SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus, Phytother Res
Elzein, Sater, Fakhreddine, Hanna, Feghali et al., In vivo evaluation of the virucidal efficacy of chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine mouthwashes against salivary SARS-CoV-2. A randomized-controlled clinical trial, J Evid-Based Dent Pract
Fantozzi, Pampena, Pierangeli, Oliveto, Sorrentino et al., Efficacy of antiseptic mouthrinses against SARS-CoV-2: A prospective randomized placebo-controlled pilot study, Am J Otolaryngol
Farmaha, James, Frazier, Sahajpal, Mondal et al., Reduction of SARS-CoV-2 salivary viral load with pre-procedural mouth rinses: a randomised, controlled, clinical trial, Br Dent J
Ferrer, Barrueco, Martinez-Beneyto, Moreno, Ausina-Márquez et al., Clinical evaluation of antiseptic mouth rinses to reduce salivary load of SARS-CoV-2, Sci Rep
Frank, Brown, Capriotti, Westover, Pelletier et al., In Vitro Efficacy of a Povidone-Iodine Nasal Antiseptic for Rapid Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2, JAMA Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg
Frank, Ibrahim, Feng, Bidra, Lafreniere et al., Tolerability of nasal and oral povidone-iodine antisepsis for in-office procedures, Clin Otolaryngol
Gao, Hood, Safai, Marmon, Evidence for the use of mouthwash as a preprocedural preventive measure against COVID-19: Should we rinse and repeat?, JAAD Int
Ghasemi, Nadji, Heidari, James, Karimi-Galougahi et al., Reduction in SARS-CoV-2 Oral Viral Load with Prophylactic Mouth Rinse, Eur J Gen Dent
Gottsauner, Michaelides, Schmidt, Scholz, Buchalla et al., A prospective clinical pilot study on the effects of a hydrogen peroxide mouthrinse on the intraoral viral load of SARS-CoV-2, Clin Oral Investig
Guenezan, Garcia, Strasters, Jousselin, Lévêque et al., Povidone iodine mouthwash, gargle, and nasal spray to reduce nasopharyngeal viral load in patients with COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial, JAMA Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg
Guimarães, Marques, Castro, Secco, Porto et al., Reducing the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva of patients with COVID-19, Oral Dis
Gül, Dilsiz, Saglık, Aydın, Effect of oral antiseptics on the viral load of SARS-CoV-2: A randomized controlled trial, Dent Med Probl
Hasan, Chiu, Salamanca, Ridwan, Wiratama et al., Effects of chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine on the SARS-CoV-2 load: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Eur J Dent
Hassandarvish, Tiong, Mohamed, Arumugam, Ananthanarayanan et al., In vitro virucidal activity of povidone iodine gargle and mouthwash against SARS-CoV-2: implications for dental practice, Br Dent J
Higgins, Thompson, Deeks, Altman, Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses, BMJ Clin Res Ed
Huang, Huang, Use of chlorhexidine to eradicate oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients, J Med Virol
Huang, Pérez, Kato, Mikami, Okuda et al., SARS-CoV-2 infection of the oral cavity and saliva, Nat Med
Izzotti, Fracchia, Au, Colombo, Pfeffer et al., Prevention of Covid-19 Infection and Related Complications by Ozonized Oils, J Pers Med
Jain, Grover, Singh, Sharma, Das et al., Chlorhexidine: An effective anticovid mouth rinse, J Indian Soc Periodontol
Jefferson, Spencer, Brassey, Heneghan, Viral cultures for coronavirus disease 2019 infectivity assessment: a systematic review, Clin Infect Dis: Publ Infect Dis Soc Am
Kariwa, Sawa, Kobayashi, Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by povidone-iodine products: implications for effective mouth rinsing and gargling, Jpn J Vet Res
Khan, Parab, 0.5% povidone iodine irrigation in otorhinolaryngology surgical practice during COVID 19 pandemic, Am J Otolaryngol
Khan, Parab, Paranjape, Repurposing 0.5% povidone iodine solution in otorhinolaryngology practice in Covid 19 pandemic, Am J Otolaryngol
Khan, Parab, Tolerability and usability of 0.5% PVP-I gargles and nasal drops in 6692 patients: Observational study, Am J Otolaryngol
Koch-Heier, Hoffmann, Schindler, Lussi, Planz, Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 through treatment with the mouth rinsing solutions ViruProX(®) and BacterX(®) Pro, Microorganisms
Komine, Yamaguchi, Okamoto, Yamamoto, Virucidal activity of oral care products against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, J Oral Maxillofac Surg, Med, Pathol
Kumar, Vani, Wang, Chen, Chen et al., Geranium and lemon essential oils and their active compounds downregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain, in epithelial cells, Plants
Köntös, Efficacy of "Essential Iodine Drops" against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), PLoS One
Lamas, Dios, Rodríguez, Campo Pérez, Alvargonzalez et al., Is povidone iodine mouthwash effective against SARS-CoV-2? First in vivo tests, Oral Dis
Li, Meng, The prevention and control of a new coronavirus infection in department of stomatology. Zhonghua kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Zhonghua kouqiang yixue, zazhi = Chin J Stomatol
Lim, Teng, Ng, Bao, Tambyah et al., Repurposing povidone-iodine to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission: a narrative review, Ann Med
Lippi, Nocini, Henry, Plebani, Virucidal effects of mouthwashes or mouth rinses: a world of caution for molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva, Diagnosis
Logothetis, Martinez-Welles, Reducing bacterial aerosol contamination with a chlorhexidine gluconate pre-rinse, J Am Dent Assoc
Marui, Souto, Rovai, Romito, Chambrone et al., Efficacy of preprocedural mouthrinses in the reduction of microorganisms in aerosol: a systematic review, J Am Dent Assoc
Matsuyama, Okura, Hashimoto, Tanaka, A prospective, randomized, open-label trial of early versus late povidone-iodine gargling in patients with COVID-19, Sci Rep
Matuck, Dolhnikoff, Duarte-Neto, Maia, Gomes et al., Salivary glands are a target for SARS-CoV-2: a source for saliva contamination, J Pathol
Mcguinness, Higgins, Risk-of-bias VISualization (robvis): An R package and Shiny web app for visualizing risk-of-bias assessments, Res Synth Methods
Meister, Brüggemann, Todt, Conzelmann, Müller et al., Virucidal efficacy of different oral rinses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, J Infect Dis
Meister, Gottsauner, Schmidt, Heinen, Todt et al., Mouthrinses against SARS-CoV-2 -High antiviral effectivity by membrane disruption in vitro translates to mild effects in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, Virus Res
Meyers, Robison, Milici, Alam, Quillen et al., Lowering the transmission and spread of human coronavirus, J Med Virol
Millones-Gómez, Mouthwashes in COVID-19: Benefit or harm to the oral microbiome?, Oral Dis
Mohamed, Baharom, Sulaiman, Rashid, Ali, Early viral clearance among COVID-19 patients when gargling with povidoneiodine and essential oils: a clinical trial, Int Med J
Mohamed, Tawfeek, Elbaramawi, Fikry, Agathis robusta Bark Essential Oil Effectiveness against COVID-19: Chemical Composition
Mostafa, Barhoum, Sehit, Gewaid, Mostafa et al., Current trends in COVID-19 diagnosis and its new variants in physiological fluids: surface antigens, antibodies, nucleic acids, and RNA sequencing, Trends Anal Chem: TRAC
Nasiri, Dimitrova, The role of povidone-iodine in managing of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, J Dent Sci
Natto, Bakhrebah, Afeef, Al-Harbi, Nassar et al., The short-term effect of different chlorhexidine forms versus povidone iodine mouth rinse in minimizing the oral SARS-CoV-2 viral load: An open label randomized controlled clinical trial study, Med (Baltim)
Nomura, Nazmul, Yoshimoto, Higashiura, Oda et al., Ethanol susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 and other enveloped viruses, Biocontrol Sci
O'donnell, Thomas, Stanton, Maillard, Murphy et al., Potential role of oral rinses targeting the viral lipid envelope in SARS-CoV-2 infection, Function
Ogun, Erinoso, Aina, Ojo, Adejumo et al., Efficacy of Hexetidine, Thymol And Hydrogen Peroxide-containing Oral Antiseptics In Reducing Sars-Cov-2 Virus In The Oral Cavity: A Pilot Study, West Afr J Med
Okamoto, Saito, Okabayashi, Komine, Virucidal activity and mechanism of action of cetylpyridinium chloride against SARS-CoV-2, J Oral Maxillofac Surg, Med, Pathol
Orlando, Chiavaroli, Adorisio, Delfino, Brunetti et al., Unravelling the phytochemical composition and the pharmacological properties of an optimized extract from the fruit from Prunus mahaleb L.: from traditional liqueur market to the pharmacy shelf, Molecules
Page, Mckenzie, Bossuyt, Boutron, Hoffmann et al., The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews, BMJ Clin Res Ed
Pelletier, Tessema, Frank, Westover, Brown et al., Efficacy of povidone-iodine nasal and oral antiseptic preparations against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Ear, Nose, Throat J
Ramji, Circello, Winston, Biesbrock, Virucidal activity of over-thecounter oral care products against SARS-CoV-2, Oral Health Prev Dent
Redmond, Li, Ghaddara, Haq, Jones et al., A pilot randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of oral and nasal povidone iodine in reducing the burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Refaey, Aaf, Kutkat, Moatasim, Tolba et al., Bioguided chemical characterization and nano-formulation studies of selected edible volatile oils with potentials antibacterial and anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities, Arab J Chem
Reis, Amaral, Mendoza, Das Graças, Mendes-Correa et al., Can preprocedural mouthrinses reduce SARS-CoV-2 load in dental aerosols?, Med Hypotheses
Rodríguez-Casanovas, Rosa, Bello-Lemus, Rasperini, Acosta-Hoyos, Virucidal activity of different mouthwashes using a novel biochemical assay, Healthcare
Rücker, Krahn, König, Efthimiou, Davies et al., Network meta-analysis using frequentist methods, R Package Version
Schneider, Schwarz, Burkholder, Kopp-Schneider, Edler et al., ToxRTool", a new tool to assess the reliability of toxicological data, Toxicol Lett
Schürmann, Aljubeh, Tiemann, Sudhoff, Mouthrinses against SARS-CoV-2: anti-inflammatory effectivity and a clinical pilot study, Eur Arch Oto-Rhino-Laryngol: J Eur Fed Oto-Rhino-Laryngol Soc (EUFOS): Affil Ger Soc Oto-Rhino-Laryngol -Head Neck Surg
Seet, Quek, Ooi, Sengupta, Lakshminarasappa et al., Positive impact of oral hydroxychloroquine and povidone-iodine throat spray for COVID-19 prophylaxis: An open-label randomized trial, Int J Infect Dis: IJID: Publ Int Soc Infect Dis
Seikai, Takada, Hasebe, Kajihara, Okuya et al., Gargling with povidone iodine has a short-term inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19, J Hosp Infect
Seneviratne, Balan, Ko, Udawatte, Lai et al., Efficacy of commercial mouth-rinses on SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva: randomized control trial in Singapore, Infection
Shet, Westover, Hong, Igo, Cataldo et al., In vitro inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 using a povidone-iodine oral rinse, BMC Oral Health
Shewale, Gelhaus, Ratcliff, Hernandez-Kapila, In vitro antiviral activity of stabilized chlorine dioxide containing oral care products, Oral Dis
Shin, Kwak, Cui, Bae, Park, In vitro virucidal effect of povidone-iodine against SARS-CoV-2, J Bacteriol Virol
Steinhauer, Meister, Todt, Krawczyk, Paßvogel et al., Comparison of the in-vitro efficacy of different mouthwash solutions targeting SARS-CoV-2 based on the European Standard EN 14476, J Hosp Infect
Sterne, Savović, Page, Elbers, Blencowe et al., RoB 2: a revised tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials, BMJ Clin Res Ed
Strub, Talma, Strub, Rut, Zmudzinski et al., Evaluation of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties of essential oils and aromatic extracts, Sci Rep
Sulistyani, Julia, Soeprapto, Swari, Rosmanato et al., The effects of mouth rinsing and gargling with mouthwash containing povidoneiodine and hydrogen peroxide on the cycle threshold value of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: A randomized controlled trial of asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic patients, Research
Takeda, Jamsransuren, Makita, Kaneko, Matsuda et al., Inactivation activities of ozonated water, slightly acidic electrolyzed water and ethanol against SARS-CoV-2, Molecules
Takeda, Sawa, Sasaki, Orba, Maishi et al., Antiviral effect of cetylpyridinium chloride in mouthwash on SARS-CoV-2, Sci Rep
Tarragó-Gil, Mj, Salcedo, Alvarez, Ainaga et al., Randomized clinical trial to assess the impact of oral intervention with cetylpyridinium chloride to reduce salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load, J Clin Periodo
Tateyama-Makino, Abe-Yutori, Iwamoto, Tsutsumi, Tsuji et al., The inhibitory effects of toothpaste and mouthwash ingredients on the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and ACE2, and the protease activity of TMPRSS2 in vitro, PLoS One
Teagle, Clem, Yoon, Virucidal Properties of Molecular Iodine Oral Rinse Against SARS-CoV-2, Compend Contin Educ Dent
Tiong, Hassandarvish, Bakar, Mohamed, Sulaiman et al., The effectiveness of various gargle formulations and salt water against SARS-CoV-2, Sci Rep
Travis, Elste, Gao, Joo, Cuevas-Nunez et al., Significance of chlorine-dioxide-based oral rinses in preventing SARS-CoV-2 cell entry, Oral Dis
Tulalamba, Assawamakin, Thayananuphat, Viprakasit, Evaluation of potassium peroxymonosulfate (MPS) efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 virus using RT-qPCR-based method, Int J Infect Dis: IJID: Publ Int Soc Infect Dis
Viechtbauer, Conducting Meta-Analyses in R with the metafor package, J Stat Softw
Vilhena, Orcina, Lemos, Less, Pinto et al., Elimination of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharynx and oropharynx after use of an adjuvant gargling and rinsing protocol with an antiseptic mouthwash, Einstein
Vilhena, Reia, Da Fonseca Orcina, Santos, Zangrando et al., The use of antiviral Phthalocyanine mouthwash as a preventive measure against COVID-19, GMS Hyg Infect Control
Villani, Aiuto, Paglia, Re, COVID-19 and Dentistry: Prevention in Dental Practice, a Literature Review, Int J Environ Res Public Health
Walker, Pritchard, House, Robotham, Birrell et al., Ct threshold values, a proxy for viral load in community SARS-CoV-2 cases, demonstrate wide variation across populations and over time, eLife
Wang, Wu, Wang, Zhu, Shi et al., Virucidal effect of povidoneiodine against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, J Int Med Res
Wyllie, Fournier, Casanovas-Massana, Campbell, Tokuyama et al., Saliva or nasopharyngeal swab specimens for detection of SARS-CoV-2, New Engl J Med
Xu, Li, Gan, Du, Yao, Salivary glands: potential reservoirs for COVID-19 asymptomatic infection, J Dent Res
Xu, Wang, Hoskin, Cugini, Markowitz et al., Differential effects of antiseptic mouth rinses on SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in vitro, Pathogens
Yadalam, Varatharajan, Rajapandian, Chopra, Arumuganainar et al., Antiviral essential oil components against SARS-CoV-2 in pre-procedural mouth rinses for dental settings during COVID-19: a computational study, Front Chem
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of over 100,000 datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop