Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All montelukast studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchMontelukastMontelukast (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Levocetirizine and montelukast in the COVID-19 treatment paradigm

May et al., International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412
Feb 2022  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
28th treatment shown to reduce risk in November 2021
 
*, now with p = 0.0045 from 8 studies.
Lower risk for mortality, hospitalization, and cases.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 77 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 53 patients reporting a potential benefit with levocetirizine and montelukast treatment for COVID-19. 51 of 53 patients were considered clinically cured on the combination therapy, with symptom resolution typically within 7 days. The study included patients with significant comorbidities. There were no deaths or reported treatment-related safety issues.
May et al., 28 Feb 2022, retrospective, peer-reviewed, 2 authors, study period March 2020 - November 2020. Contact: bcmay@irrinc.net, kathleen_gallivan@meei.harvard.edu.
This PaperMontelukastAll
Levocetirizine and montelukast in the COVID-19 treatment paradigm
Bruce Chandler May, Kathleen Holly Gallivan
International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412
Levocetirizine, a third-generation antihistamine, and montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, exhibit remarkable synergistic anti-inflammatory activity across a spectrum of signaling proteins, cell adhesion molecules, and leukocytes. By targeting cellular protein activity, they are uniquely positioned to treat the symptoms of COVID-19. Clinical data to date with an associated six-month follow-up, suggests the combination therapy may prevent the progression of the disease from mild to moderate to severe, as well as prevent/treat many of the aspects of 'Long COVID,' thereby cost effectively reducing both morbidity and mortality. To investigate patient outcomes, 53 consecutive COVID-19 test (+) cases (ages 3-90) from a well-established, single-center practice in Boston, Massachusetts, between March -November 2020, were treated with levocetirizine and montelukast in addition to then existing protocols [2] . The data set was retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-four cases were considered mild (64%), 17 moderate (32%), and 2 (4%) severe. Several patients presented with significant comorbidities (obesity: n = 22, 41%; diabetes: n = 10, 19%; hypertension: n = 24, 45%). Among the cohort there were no exclusions, no intubations, and no deaths. The pilot study in Massachusetts encompassed the first COVID-19 wave which peaked on April 23, 2020 as well as the ascending portion of the second wave in the fall. During this period the average weekly COVID-19 case mortality rate (confirmed deaths/confirmed cases) varied considerably between 1 and 7.5% [37] . FDA has approved a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase 2 clinical trial design, replete with electronic diaries and laboratory metrics to explore scientific questions not addressed herein.
Declaration of Competing Interest The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests: B. Chandler May, MD, JD, MS, FCLM is a practicing physician and CEO of Inflammatory Response Research, Inc. (IRR, Inc.) a drug development company focused on the combination of levocetirizine and montelukast for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. The current retrospective study utilized commercially available levocetirizine and montelukast from sources unrelated to IRR, Inc; independently prescribed by Kathleen Holly Gallivan, MD, MPH, FACS, FAAOA. Dr. Gallivan has no financial interests to report.
References
Abu-Saleh, Awad, Yadav, Poirier, Discovery of potent inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2's main protease by ligand-based/structure-based virtual screening, MD simulations, and binding energy calculations, PCCP
Ali, O'brien, Cleves, Martin, Exploring the possible association between montelukast and neuropsychiatric events among children with asthma: a matched nested case-control study, Pharmacoepidemiol. Drug Saf
Bachert, Bousquet, Canonica, Durham, Klimek et al., Levocetirizine improves quality of life and reduces costs in long-term management of persistent allergic rhinitis, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol
Chen, Li, Wang, Zou, Montelukast, an Anti-asthmatic Drug, Inhibits Zika Virus Infection by Disrupting Viral Integrity, Front. Microbiol
Chen, Physicochemical, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of the zwitterionic antihistamines cetirizine and levocetirizine, Curr. Med. Chem
Chen, Qi, Liu, Ling, Qian et al., Clinical progression of patients with COVID-19 in Shanghai, China, J. Infect
Church, Church, Pharmacology of antihistamines, Indian J. Dermatol
Copertino, Duarte, Powell, Mulder Rougvie, Nixon, Montelukast drug activity and potential against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), J. Med. Virol
Davino-Chiovatto, Oliveira-Junior, Mackenzie, Santos-Dias, Almeida-Oliveira et al., Montelukast, leukotriene inhibitor, reduces LPS-induced acute lung inflammation and human neutrophil activation, Arch. Bronconeumol
Dediego, Nieto-Torres, Regla-Nava, Inhibition of NF-κBmediated inflammation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-infected mice increases survival, J. Virol
Durdagi, Avsar, Orhan, The neutralization effect of montelukast on SARS-CoV-2 is shown by multiscale in silico simulations and combined in vitro studies, Molecular Therapy
Dyall, Coleman, Hart, Venkataraman, Holbrook et al., Repurposing of clinically developed drugs for treatment of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother
Estelle, Simons, Mcmillan, Simons, A double-blind, single-dose, crossover comparison of cetirizine, terfenadine, loratadine, astemizole, and chlorpheniramine versus placebo: suppressive effects on histamine-induced wheals and flares during 24 hours in normal subjects, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol
Fahmi, Salem, Levocetirizine pretreatment mitigates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation in rats, Biomed Res. Int
Fogli, Stefanelli, Neri, Bardelli, Amoruso et al., Montelukast prevents microparticle-induced inflammatory and functional alterations in human bronchial smooth muscle cells, Pharmacol. Res
Gandon, Allain, Lack of effect of single and repeated doses of levocetirizine, a new antihistamine drug, on cognitive and psychomotor functions in healthy volunteers, Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol
Gillman, Gillard, Benedetti, The concept of receptor occupancy to predict clinical efficacy: a comparison of second generation H1 antihistamines, Allergy Asthma Proc
Giustizieri, Albanesi, Fluhr, Gisondi, Norgauer et al., H1 histamine receptor mediates inflammatory responses in human keratinocytes, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol
Grant, Riethuisen, Moulaert, Devos, A double-blind, randomized, single-dose, crossover comparison of levocetirizine with ebastine, fexofenadine, loratadine, mizolastine, and placebo: suppression of histamine-induced wheal-andflare response during 24 hours in healthy male subjects, Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol
Hair, Scott, Levocetirizine: a review of its use in the management of allergic rhinitis and skin allergies, Drugs
Hospital, SARS-COV-2 Infection Statuses and Resolution COVID-19, CoV-Presumed, CoV-Risk, and CoV-Exposed
Jain, Cetirizine and astemizole in allergic rhinitis a comparative study, Indian J. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg
Jang, Wang, Kim, Kwon, Yeo et al., Levocetirizine inhibits rhinovirus-induced ICAM-1 and cytokine expression and viral replication in airway epithelial cells, Antiviral Res
Kroenke, Spitzer, Williams, Lowe, An ultra-brief screening scale for anxiety and depression: the PHQ-4, Psychosomatics
Kumar, Singh, Kumari, Kumar, Agnihotri et al., Identification of multipotent drugs for COVID-19 therapeutics with the evaluation of their SARS-CoV2 inhibitory activity, Comput. Struct. Biotechnol. J
Lauer, Grantz, Bi, Jones, Zheng et al., The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: estimation and application, Ann. Intern. Med
Merad, Martin, Pathological inflammation in patients with COVID-19: a key role for monocytes and macrophages, Nat. Rev. Immunol
Mullol, Callejas, Méndez-Arancibia, Montelukast reduces eosinophilic inflammation by inhibiting both epithelial cell cytokine secretion (GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-8) and eosinophil survival, J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents
Peters-Golden, Henderson, None, N. Engl. J. Med
Philip, Hustad, Malice, Noonan, Ezekowitz et al., Analysis of behavior-related adverse experiences in clinical trials of montelukast, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol
Rhen, Cidlowski, Antiinflammatory action of glucocorticoids-new mechanisms for old drugs, N. Engl. J. Med
Robinson, Kashanin, O'dowd, Williams, Walsh, Montelukast inhibition of resting and GM-CSF-stimulated eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1 under flow conditions appears independent of cysLT(1)R antagonism, J. Leukoc. Biol
Rodriguez-Morales, Gutierrez-Ocampo, Clincial, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Travel Med. Infect. Dis
Roumestan, Henriquet, Gougat, Michel, Bichon et al., Histamine H1-receptor antagonists inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1 activities via H1-receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms, Clin. Exp. Allergy
Sanofi, None, XYZAL Prescribing Information
Sansing-Foster, Neuropsychiatric adverse events and montelukast: observational safety analyses, FDA
Sarzi-Puttini, Giorgi, Sirotti, COVID-19, cytokines and immunosuppression: what can we learn from severe acute respiratory syndrome?, Clin. Exp. Rheumatol
Schumock, Stayner, Valuck, Joo, Gibbons et al., Risk of suicide attempt in asthmatic children and young adults prescribed leukotrienemodifying agents: a nested case-control study, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol
Sharma, Gupta, Pathak, Ramam, An open-label prospective clinical study to assess the efficacy of increasing levocetirizine dose up to four times in chronic spontaneous urticaria not controlled with standard dose, J. Dermatolog. Treat
Stelmach, Jerzynska, Kuna, A randomized, double-blind trial of the effect of treatment with montelukast on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and serum eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R), IL-4, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) in children with asthma, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol
Storms, Michele, Knorr, Clinical safety and tolerability of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in controlled clinical trials in patients aged > or = 6 years, Clin. Exp. Allergy
Suetrong, Successful treatment of refractory pediatric severe ARDS with highdose montelukast, Crit. Care Med
Tahan, Jazrawi, Moodley, Rovati, Adcock, Montelukast inhibits tumour necrosis factor-alpha-mediated interleukin-8 expression through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB p65-associated histone acetyltransferase activity, Clin. Exp. Allergy
Theron, Steel, Tintinger, Gravett, Anderson et al., Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 antagonists as modulators of innate immune cell function, J Immunol Res
Tillement, Testa, Brée, Compared pharmacological characteristics in humans of racemic cetirizine and levocetirizine, two histamine H1-receptor antagonists, Biochem. Pharmacol
Tintinger, Feldman, Theron, Anderson, Montelukast: more than a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist?, Sci. World J
Ying, Kay, The effect of levocetirizine on histamine and cytokineinduced upregulation of eotaxin by endothelial cells
Zhou, Vorperian, Gong, Zhang, January, Block of HERG potassium channels by the antihistamine astemizole and its metabolites desmethylastemizole and norastemizole, J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol
Štekláč, Zajaček, Bučinský, 3CL(pro) and PL(pro) affinity, a docking study to fight COVID19 based on 900 compounds from PubChem and literature. Are there new drugs to be found?, J. Mol. Struct
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 5, 6]], 'date-time': '2024-05-06T11:12:39Z', 'timestamp': 1714993959063}, 'reference-count': 51, 'publisher': 'Elsevier BV', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 2, 1]], 'date-time': '2022-02-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1643673600000}, 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/'}, { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 12, 21]], 'date-time': '2021-12-21T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1640044800000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': ['elsevier.com', 'sciencedirect.com'], 'crossmark-restriction': True}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2022, 2]]}, 'DOI': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 12, 15]], 'date-time': '2021-12-15T22:59:21Z', 'timestamp': 1639609161000}, 'page': '108412', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/elsevier_cm_policy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 17, 'title': 'Levocetirizine and montelukast in the COVID-19 treatment paradigm', 'prefix': '10.1016', 'volume': '103', 'author': [ {'given': 'Bruce Chandler', 'family': 'May', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Kathleen Holly', 'family': 'Gallivan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '78', 'reference': [ { 'issue': '16', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0005', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1711', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMra050541', 'article-title': 'Antiinflammatory action of glucocorticoids–new mechanisms for old drugs', 'volume': '353', 'author': 'Rhen', 'year': '2005', 'journal-title': 'N. Engl. J. Med.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0010', 'unstructured': 'Hospital MG. SARS-COV-2 Infection Statuses and Resolution COVID-19, ' 'CoV-Presumed, CoV-Risk, and CoV-Exposed. June 2020.'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0015', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e1', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.004', 'article-title': 'Clinical progression of patients with COVID-19 in Shanghai, China', 'volume': '80', 'author': 'Chen', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J. Infect.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0020', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101623', 'article-title': 'Clincial, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: a systematic ' 'review and meta-analysis', 'volume': '34', 'author': 'Rodriguez-Morales', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Travel Med. Infect. Dis.'}, { 'issue': '9', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0025', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '577', 'DOI': '10.7326/M20-0504', 'article-title': 'The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from ' 'publicly reported confirmed cases: estimation and application', 'volume': '172', 'author': 'Lauer', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Ann. Intern. Med.'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0030', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '355', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41577-020-0331-4', 'article-title': 'Pathological inflammation in patients with COVID-19: a key role for ' 'monocytes and macrophages', 'volume': '20', 'author': 'Merad', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Nat. Rev. Immunol.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0035', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1', 'DOI': '10.1155/2018/7019759', 'article-title': 'Levocetirizine pretreatment mitigates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung ' 'inflammation in rats', 'volume': '2018', 'author': 'Fahmi', 'year': '2018', 'journal-title': 'Biomed Res. Int.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0040', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '149', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.phrs.2013.08.001', 'article-title': 'Montelukast prevents microparticle-induced inflammatory and functional ' 'alterations in human bronchial smooth muscle cells', 'volume': '76', 'author': 'Fogli', 'year': '2013', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacol. Res.'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0045', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1176', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jaci.2004.07.054', 'article-title': 'H1 histamine receptor mediates inflammatory responses in human ' 'keratinocytes', 'volume': '114', 'author': 'Giustizieri', 'year': '2004', 'journal-title': 'J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.'}, { 'issue': '7', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0050', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '973', 'DOI': '10.2165/00003495-200666070-00017', 'article-title': 'Levocetirizine: a review of its use in the management of allergic ' 'rhinitis and skin allergies', 'volume': '66', 'author': 'Hair', 'year': '2006', 'journal-title': 'Drugs'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0055', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '226', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.12.001', 'article-title': 'Levocetirizine inhibits rhinovirus-induced ICAM-1 and cytokine ' 'expression and viral replication in airway epithelial cells', 'volume': '81', 'author': 'Jang', 'year': '2009', 'journal-title': 'Antiviral Res.'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0060', 'first-page': '403', 'article-title': 'Montelukast reduces eosinophilic inflammation by inhibiting both ' 'epithelial cell cytokine secretion (GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-8) and eosinophil ' 'survival', 'volume': '24', 'author': 'Mullol', 'year': '2010', 'journal-title': 'J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents'}, { 'issue': '18', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0065', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1841', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMra071371', 'article-title': 'Leukotrienes', 'volume': '357', 'author': 'Peters-Golden', 'year': '2007', 'journal-title': 'N. Engl. J. Med.'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0070', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1522', 'DOI': '10.1189/jlb.1007717', 'article-title': 'Montelukast inhibition of resting and GM-CSF-stimulated eosinophil ' 'adhesion to VCAM-1 under flow conditions appears independent of ' 'cysLT(1)R antagonism', 'volume': '83', 'author': 'Robinson', 'year': '2008', 'journal-title': 'J. Leukoc. Biol.'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0075', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '257', 'DOI': '10.1067/mai.2002.121456', 'volume': '109', 'author': 'Stelmach', 'year': '2002', 'journal-title': 'J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0080', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '805', 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1365-2222.2008.02963.x', 'article-title': 'Montelukast inhibits tumour necrosis factor-alpha-mediated ' 'interleukin-8 expression through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB ' 'p65-associated histone acetyltransferase activity', 'volume': '38', 'author': 'Tahan', 'year': '2008', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Exp. Allergy'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0085', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1', 'DOI': '10.1155/2014/608930', 'article-title': 'Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 antagonists as modulators of innate ' 'immune cell function', 'volume': '2014', 'author': 'Theron', 'year': '2014', 'journal-title': 'J Immunol Res'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0090', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2403', 'DOI': '10.1100/tsw.2010.229', 'article-title': 'Montelukast: more than a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist?', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'Tintinger', 'year': '2010', 'journal-title': 'Sci. World J.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0095', 'unstructured': 'www.bu.edu/NF-kB. NF-kB. 2021.'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0100', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '913', 'DOI': '10.1128/JVI.02576-13', 'article-title': 'Inhibition of NF-κB-mediated inflammation in severe acute respiratory ' 'syndrome coronavirus-infected mice increases survival', 'volume': '88', 'author': 'DeDiego', 'year': '2014', 'journal-title': 'J. Virol.'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0105', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '947', 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1365-2222.2008.02990.x', 'article-title': 'Histamine H1-receptor antagonists inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB and ' 'activator protein-1 activities via H1-receptor-dependent and ' '-independent mechanisms', 'volume': '38', 'author': 'Roumestan', 'year': '2008', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Exp. Allergy'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0110', 'unstructured': 'S.M.Q. Ying, A.B. Kay, The effect of levocetirizine on histamine and ' 'cytokine-induced upregulation of eotaxin by endothelial cells, in: ' 'Proceedings of the XXI Congress of the European Academy of Allergy and ' 'Clincial Immunology; 2001; Naples, France; 2001.'}, { 'issue': '21', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0115', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2173', 'DOI': '10.2174/092986708785747625', 'article-title': 'Physicochemical, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of the ' 'zwitterionic antihistamines cetirizine and levocetirizine', 'volume': '15', 'author': 'Chen', 'year': '2008', 'journal-title': 'Curr. Med. Chem.'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0120', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '219', 'DOI': '10.4103/0019-5154.110832', 'article-title': 'Pharmacology of antihistamines', 'volume': '58', 'author': 'Church', 'year': '2013', 'journal-title': 'Indian J. Dermatol.'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0125', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '540', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0091-6749(05)80210-6', 'article-title': 'A double-blind, single-dose, crossover comparison of cetirizine, ' 'terfenadine, loratadine, astemizole, and chlorpheniramine versus ' 'placebo: suppressive effects on histamine-induced wheals and flares ' 'during 24 hours in normal subjects', 'volume': '86', 'author': 'Estelle', 'year': '1990', 'journal-title': 'J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0130', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '366', 'DOI': '10.2500/aap.2009.30.3226', 'article-title': 'The concept of receptor occupancy to predict clinical efficacy: a ' 'comparison of second generation H1 antihistamines', 'volume': '30', 'author': 'Gillman', 'year': '2009', 'journal-title': 'Allergy Asthma Proc.'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0135', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '190', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1081-1206(10)61995-3', 'article-title': 'A double-blind, randomized, single-dose, crossover comparison of ' 'levocetirizine with ebastine, fexofenadine, loratadine, mizolastine, ' 'and placebo: suppression of histamine-induced wheal-and-flare response ' 'during 24 hours in healthy male subjects', 'volume': '88', 'author': 'Grant', 'year': '2002', 'journal-title': 'Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.'}, { 'issue': '11', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0140', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '573', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.arbres.2019.05.003', 'article-title': 'Montelukast, leukotriene inhibitor, reduces LPS-induced acute lung ' 'inflammation and human neutrophil activation', 'volume': '55', 'author': 'Davino-Chiovatto', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'Arch. Bronconeumol.'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0145', 'first-page': '1244', 'article-title': 'Successful treatment of refractory pediatric severe ARDS with high-dose ' 'montelukast', 'volume': '47', 'author': 'Suetrong', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'Crit. Care Med.'}, { 'issue': '40', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0150', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '23099', 'DOI': '10.1039/D0CP04326E', 'article-title': "Discovery of potent inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2's main protease by " 'ligand-based/structure-based virtual screening, MD simulations, and ' 'binding energy calculations', 'volume': '22', 'author': 'Abu-Saleh', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'PCCP'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0155', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1998', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.csbj.2021.04.014', 'article-title': 'Identification of multipotent drugs for COVID-19 therapeutics with the ' 'evaluation of their SARS-CoV2 inhibitory activity', 'volume': '19', 'author': 'Kumar', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Comput. Struct. Biotechnol. J.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0160', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '130968', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.molstruc.2021.130968', 'article-title': '3CL(pro) and PL(pro) affinity, a docking study to fight COVID19 based ' 'on 900 compounds from PubChem and literature. Are there new drugs to be ' 'found?', 'volume': '1245', 'author': 'Štekláč', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J. Mol. Struct.'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0165', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '187', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.26299', 'article-title': 'Montelukast drug activity and potential against severe acute ' 'respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)', 'volume': '93', 'author': 'Copertino', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J. Med. Virol.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0170', 'unstructured': 'S. Durdagi, T. Avsar, M.D. Orhan, et al., The neutralization effect of ' 'montelukast on SARS-CoV-2 is shown by multiscale in silico simulations ' 'and combined in vitro studies, Molecular Therapy 2021 Oct ' '19;S1525-0016(21)00521-9. Online ahead of print.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0175', 'first-page': '1', 'article-title': 'Neuropsychiatric adverse events and montelukast: observational safety ' 'analyses', 'author': 'Sansing-Foster', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'FDA'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0180', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '435', 'DOI': '10.1002/pds.3758', 'article-title': 'Exploring the possible association between montelukast and ' 'neuropsychiatric events among children with asthma: a matched nested ' 'case-control study', 'volume': '24', 'author': 'Ali', 'year': '2015', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacoepidemiol. Drug Saf.'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0185', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '699', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jaci.2009.08.011', 'article-title': 'Analysis of behavior-related adverse experiences in clinical trials of ' 'montelukast', 'volume': '124', 'author': 'Philip', 'year': '2009', 'journal-title': 'J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0190', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '368', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jaci.2012.04.035', 'article-title': 'Risk of suicide attempt in asthmatic children and young adults ' 'prescribed leukotriene-modifying agents: a nested case-control study', 'volume': '130', 'author': 'Schumock', 'year': '2012', 'journal-title': 'J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0195', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '838', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jaci.2004.05.070', 'article-title': 'Levocetirizine improves quality of life and reduces costs in long-term ' 'management of persistent allergic rhinitis', 'volume': '114', 'author': 'Bachert', 'year': '2004', 'journal-title': 'J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0200', 'first-page': '613', 'article-title': 'An ultra-brief screening scale for anxiety and depression: the PHQ-4', 'volume': '50', 'author': 'Kroenke', 'year': '2009', 'journal-title': 'Psychosomatics'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0205', 'unstructured': 'Sanofi. XYZAL Prescribing Information, vol. 19, 2016.'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0210', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '539', 'DOI': '10.1080/09546634.2016.1246705', 'article-title': 'An open-label prospective clinical study to assess the efficacy of ' 'increasing levocetirizine dose up to four times in chronic spontaneous ' 'urticaria not controlled with standard dose', 'volume': '28', 'author': 'Sharma', 'year': '2017', 'journal-title': 'J. Dermatolog. Treat'}, { 'issue': '8', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0215', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '4885', 'DOI': '10.1128/AAC.03036-14', 'article-title': 'Repurposing of clinically developed drugs for treatment of Middle East ' 'respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection', 'volume': '58', 'author': 'Dyall', 'year': '2014', 'journal-title': 'Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0220', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '94', 'DOI': '10.1007/BF02996544', 'article-title': 'Cetirizine and astemizole in allergic rhinitis a comparative study', 'volume': '51', 'author': 'Jain', 'year': '1999', 'journal-title': 'Indian J. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0225', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '836', 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1540-8167.1999.tb00264.x', 'article-title': 'Block of HERG potassium channels by the antihistamine astemizole and ' 'its metabolites desmethylastemizole and norastemizole', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'Zhou', 'year': '1999', 'journal-title': 'J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0230', 'unstructured': 'Merck. Singulair Prescribing Information, 2020.'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0235', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '77', 'DOI': '10.1046/j.1365-2222.2001.00969.x', 'article-title': 'Clinical safety and tolerability of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor ' 'antagonist, in controlled clinical trials in patients aged > or = 6 ' 'years', 'volume': '31', 'author': 'Storms', 'year': '2001', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Exp. Allergy'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0240', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '337', 'DOI': '10.55563/clinexprheumatol/xcdary', 'article-title': 'COVID-19, cytokines and immunosuppression: what can we learn from ' 'severe acute respiratory syndrome?', 'volume': '38', 'author': 'Sarzi-Puttini', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0245', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '3079', 'DOI': '10.3389/fmicb.2019.03079', 'article-title': 'Montelukast, an Anti-asthmatic Drug, Inhibits Zika Virus Infection by ' 'Disrupting Viral Integrity', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'Chen', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'Front. Microbiol.'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0250', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '51', 'DOI': '10.1046/j.1365-2125.2002.01611.x', 'article-title': 'Lack of effect of single and repeated doses of levocetirizine, a new ' 'antihistamine drug, on cognitive and psychomotor functions in healthy ' 'volunteers', 'volume': '54', 'author': 'Gandon', 'year': '2002', 'journal-title': 'Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol.'}, { 'issue': '7', 'key': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412_b0255', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1123', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0006-2952(03)00558-6', 'article-title': 'Compared pharmacological characteristics in humans of racemic ' 'cetirizine and levocetirizine, two histamine H1-receptor antagonists', 'volume': '66', 'author': 'Tillement', 'year': '2003', 'journal-title': 'Biochem. Pharmacol.'}], 'container-title': 'International Immunopharmacology', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S1567576921010481?httpAccept=text/xml', 'content-type': 'text/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S1567576921010481?httpAccept=text/plain', 'content-type': 'text/plain', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 8, 10]], 'date-time': '2022-08-10T01:11:43Z', 'timestamp': 1660093903000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1567576921010481'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022, 2]]}, 'references-count': 51, 'alternative-id': ['S1567576921010481'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['1567-5769'], 'subject': [], 'container-title-short': 'International Immunopharmacology', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022, 2]]}, 'assertion': [ {'value': 'Elsevier', 'name': 'publisher', 'label': 'This article is maintained by'}, { 'value': 'Levocetirizine and montelukast in the COVID-19 treatment paradigm', 'name': 'articletitle', 'label': 'Article Title'}, { 'value': 'International Immunopharmacology', 'name': 'journaltitle', 'label': 'Journal Title'}, { 'value': 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108412', 'name': 'articlelink', 'label': 'CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version'}, {'value': 'article', 'name': 'content_type', 'label': 'Content Type'}, { 'value': '© 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.', 'name': 'copyright', 'label': 'Copyright'}], 'article-number': '108412'}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit