Vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 Infection: SERVE Study (SARS-CoV-2 Exposure and the Role of Vitamin D among Hospital Employees)
Liu et al.
, Vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 Infection: SERVE Study (SARS-CoV-2 Exposure and the Role of Vitamin D among Hospital..
, The Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001
Prospective study of 250 healthcare workers in the USA. The results are unclear - Figure 3 shows ~40% lower incidence with vitamin D supplementation, while the text indicates OR 1.18.
Authors collected symptom information, stating that "55% were symptomatic; the most common symptoms were cough, sore throat, and loss of taste or smell. Nine participants (16%) sought medical care...", but provide no information on symptoms per group for vitamin D supplementation. It is unclear what the definition of infection is - based on the antibody tests only, or also including self-reported cases? The meaning of increased antibodies is also not clear - vitamin D may improve antibody production.
Authors state "Despite a lack of evidence, a recent study found that nearly 70% of health care workers reported recommending vitamin D supplements...", however there is extensive evidence. There are currently 107 studies
showing 37% [31‑42%]
lower risk, including 26 RCTs
showing 31% [17‑42%]
Authors perform multivariable analysis for serum levels, but do not provide the results other than indicating they did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, they note no significant association between levels and symptoms, without providing any details. Authors do not provide multivariable analysis for supplement use. Authors make no comment on symptom prevalence for supplement use. Discussion is biased, for example referencing only 4 of the 25 RCTs at the time, strongly biased towards those reporting lower efficacy. No baseline information per group is provided.
38% of patients were lost to followup. We could not find any prospective registration or protocol. Funding was disclosed from Novartis and Radius Pharmaceuticals (whose lead product abaloparatide is an osteoporosis treatment).
Liu et al., 5 Mar 2023, prospective, USA, peer-reviewed, survey, mean age 40.0, 15 authors, dosage 2,250IU daily, average dose.
Abstract: Journal Pre-proof
Vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 Infection: SERVE Study (SARS-CoV-2 Exposure and the
Role of Vitamin D among Hospital Employees)
Yi Liu, Shannon Clare, Gia D’Erasmo, Alison Heilbronner, Alexander Dash, Alexandra
Krez, Caroline Zaworski, Katherine Haseltine, Alana Serota, Andy Miller, Keila Veiga,
Marvin Sandoval Theresa T. Lu, Donald J McMahon, Jeri W. Nieves, Emily Margaret
To appear in:
The Journal of Nutrition
Received Date: 28 November 2022
27 February 2023
Accepted Date: 1 March 2023
Please cite this article as: Y. Liu, S. Clare, G. D’Erasmo, A. Heilbronner, A. Dash, A. Krez, C. Zaworski,
K. Haseltine, A. Serota, A. Miller, K. Veiga, M.S. Theresa T. Lu, D.J McMahon, J.W. Nieves, E.M. Stein,
Vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 Infection: SERVE Study (SARS-CoV-2 Exposure and the Role of Vitamin D
among Hospital Employees) The Journal of Nutrition, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001.
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© 2023 American Society for Nutrition. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 Infection:
SERVE Study (SARS-CoV-2 Exposure and the Role of Vitamin D among Hospital Employees)
Yi Liu1,2, Shannon Clare1,2, Gia D’Erasmo1,2, Alison Heilbronner1,2, Alexander Dash1,2, Alexandra Krez1,2,
Caroline Zaworski1,2, Katherine Haseltine1,2, Alana Serota2, Andy Miller3, Keila Veiga4, Marvin Sandoval
Theresa T. Lu4, Donald J McMahon1,2, Jeri W. Nieves2, Emily Margaret Stein1,2,4
Division of Endocrinology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA, 10021
Metabolic Bone Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA, 10021
Division of Infectious Diseases, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA, 10021
Research Institute, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA, 10021
Abbreviated Title: Vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Word Count: 3429
Key Words: Vitamin D, SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19
Emily M. Stein MD, MS
Director of Research
Metabolic Bone Service
Hospital for Special Surgery
Associate Professor of Medicine
Weill Cornell Medical College
535 East 70th Street
New York, NY 10021
Phone (646) 714-6558
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1463-5774
Please address reprint requests to Dr. Stein
Funding Sources: This work was funded by a COVID-19 research grant from the Hospital for Special
Disclosures: YL, SC, GD, AH, AD, AK, CZ, KH, AS, AM, KV, MS, TTL, DJM have nothing to
JWN reports research support from Radius Pharmaceuticals.
EMS reports research support from Novartis and Radius Pharmaceuticals.
25OHD: serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D
ACE2: angiotensin-converting enzyme..
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