Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 Infection: SERVE Study (SARS-CoV-2 Exposure and the Role of Vitamin D among Hospital Employees)

Liu et al., The Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001
Mar 2023  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 121 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19early.org
Prospective study of 250 healthcare workers in the USA. The results are unclear - Figure 3 shows ~40% lower incidence with vitamin D supplementation, while the text indicates OR 1.18.
Authors collected symptom information, stating that "55% were symptomatic; the most common symptoms were cough, sore throat, and loss of taste or smell. Nine participants (16%) sought medical care...", but provide no information on symptoms per group for vitamin D supplementation. It is unclear what the definition of infection is - based on the antibody tests only, or also including self-reported cases? The meaning of increased antibodies is also not clear - vitamin D may improve antibody production.
Authors state "Despite a lack of evidence, a recent study found that nearly 70% of health care workers reported recommending vitamin D supplements...", however there is extensive evidence. There are currently 121 studies showing 37% [31‑42%] lower risk, including 30 RCTs showing 32% [20‑42%] lower risk.
Authors perform multivariable analysis for serum levels, but do not provide the results other than indicating they did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, they note no significant association between levels and symptoms, without providing any details. Authors do not provide multivariable analysis for supplement use. Authors make no comment on symptom prevalence for supplement use. Discussion is biased, for example referencing only 4 of the 25 RCTs at the time, strongly biased towards those reporting lower efficacy. No baseline information per group is provided.
38% of patients were lost to followup. We could not find any prospective registration or protocol. Funding was disclosed from Novartis and Radius Pharmaceuticals (whose lead product abaloparatide is an osteoporosis treatment).
Liu et al., 5 Mar 2023, prospective, USA, peer-reviewed, survey, mean age 40.0, 15 authors, dosage 2,250IU daily, average dose. Contact: steine@hss.edu.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 Infection: SERVE Study (SARS-CoV-2 Exposure and the Role of Vitamin D among Hospital Employees)
Yi Liu, Shannon Clare, Gia D’erasmo, Alison Heilbronner, Alexander Dash, Alexandra Krez, Caroline Zaworski, Katherine Haseltine, Alana Serota, Andy Miller, M.S Keila Veiga, Marvin Sandoval, Theresa T Lu, Donald J Mcmahon, Jeri W Nieves, MD Emily Margaret Stein
The Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001
This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
reflection of the high infectivity of this viral strain but also may have related to waning antibody levels from the time since vaccination. While it is conceivable that our sample size was too small to detect a relationship between 25OHD and infection risk, the observed rate of infection we observed was greater than we predicted in our a priori power calculation, suggesting the null finding of our study was unlikely to be due to a small sample size. Although we investigated several cut-points for 25OHD, it is conceivable that there is a non-linear relationship between serum 25OHD and incident infection which we were not able to detect in our analyses. We did not find that use of vitamin D supplements lowered the risk of incident SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nor did we find a relationship between dosage of supplements and incident infection. In our study, about half of the participants took vitamin D supplements at baseline. Our findings are consistent with those of a recent meta-analysis that included one randomized controlled trial and three cohort studies in which vitamin D supplementation did not significantly reduce the risk of COVID-19 (45) . In a study from the UK Biobank, use of vitamin D supplements was associated with a 34% lower risk of COVID-19. As only individuals who had clinical COVID-19 tests were included, those findings may not have reflected relationships with asymptomatic disease in the general population. Further, the information about vitamin D supplement use..
References
Abdollahi, Sarvestani, Rafat, Ghaderkhani, Mahmoudi-Aliabadi et al., The association between the level of serum 25(OH) vitamin D, obesity, and underlying diseases with the risk of developing COVID-19 infection: A case-control study of hospitalized patients in Tehran, Iran, J Med Virol
Aranow, Vitamin D and the immune system, J Investig Med
Atef, Vitamin D assays in clinical laboratory: Past, present and future challenges, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol
Ayosanmi, Alli, Akingbule, Alaga, Perepelkin et al., Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Medication Practices for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review, Antibiotics
Bandeira, Lazaretti-Castro, Binkley, Giustina, Bilezikian, Clinical aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vitamin D : COVID-19 and the endocrine system: special issue for reviews in endocrine and metabolic disorders (Felipe Casaneuva, Editor in Chief) A, Rev Endocr Metab Disord
Bilezikian, Bikle, Hewison, Lazaretti-Castro, Formenti et al., MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Vitamin D and COVID-19, Eur J Endocrinol
Bilezikian, Formenti, Adler, Binkley, Bouillon et al., Vitamin D: Dosing, levels, form, and route of administration: Does one approach fit all?, Rev Endocr Metab Disord
Bouillon, Manousaki, Rosen, Trajanoska, Rivadeneira et al., The health effects of vitamin D supplementation: evidence from human studies, Nat Rev Endocrinol
Brunvoll, Nygaard, Ellingjord-Dale, Holland, Istre et al., Prevention of covid-19 and other acute respiratory infections with cod liver oil supplementation, a low dose vitamin D supplement: quadruple blinded, randomised placebo controlled trial, BMJ
Buckley, Keil, Mcgrath, Edwards, Evolving methods for inference in the presence of healthy worker survivor bias, Epidemiology
Burt, Billington, Rose, Kremer, Hanley et al., Adverse Effects of High-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Volumetric Bone Density Are Greater in Females than Males, J Bone Miner Res
Camargo, Ganmaa, Frazier, Kirchberg, Stuart et al., Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation and risk of acute respiratory infection in Mongolia, Pediatrics
Chen, Sims, Chen, Gu, Chen et al., Modulatory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on human B cell differentiation, J Immunol
D'ecclesiis, Gavioli, Martinoli, Raimondi, Chiocca et al., Vitamin D and SARS-CoV2 infection, severity and mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis, PLoS One
Dong, Du, Gardner, An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time, Lancet Infect Dis
Fairfield, Murray, Anzalone, Beasley, Khodaverdi et al., Association of Vitamin D Prescribing and Clinical Outcomes in Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19, Nutrients
Forrest, Stuhldreher, Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults
Hao, Carson, Schlussel, Noveck, Shapses, Vitamin D deficiency is associated with reduced mobility after hip fracture surgery: a prospective study, Am J Clin Nutr
Hastie, Mackay, Ho, Celis-Morales, Katikireddi et al., Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank, Diabetes Metab Syndr
Hastie, Pell, Sattar, Vitamin D and COVID-19 infection and mortality in UK Biobank
Hernandez, Nan, Fernandez-Ayala, Garcia-Unzueta, Hernandez-Hernandez et al., Vitamin D Status in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection, J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Hewison, Vitamin D and the intracrinology of innate immunity, Mol Cell Endocrinol
Hosseini, El Abd, Ducharme, Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on COVID-19
Im, Je, Baek, Chung, Kwon et al., Nutritional status of patients with COVID
Jolliffe, Camargo, Sluyter, Aglipay, Aloia et al., Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised controlled trials, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
Jolliffe, Holt, Greenig, Talaei, Perdek et al., Vitamin D Supplements for Prevention of Covid-19 or other Acute Respiratory Infections: a Phase 3 Randomized Controlled Trial (CORONAVIT), BMJ
Jones, Redmond, Fulford, Jarjou, Zhou et al., Diurnal rhythms of vitamin D binding protein and total and free vitamin D metabolites, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol
Karonova, Chernikova, Golovatyuk, Bykova, Grant et al., Vitamin D Intake May Reduce SARS-CoV-2 Infection Morbidity in Health Care Workers, Nutrients
Kaufman, Niles, Kroll, Bi, Holick, SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, PLoS One
Li, Tong, Bare, Devlin, Assessment of the Association of Vitamin D Level With SARS-CoV-2 Seropositivity Among Working-Age Adults, JAMA Netw Open
Ma, Zhou, Heianza, Qi, Habitual use of vitamin D supplements and risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: a prospective study in UK Biobank, Am J Clin Nutr
Manaseki-Holland, Qader, Masher, Bruce, Mughal et al., Effects of vitamin D supplementation to children diagnosed with pneumonia in Kabul: a randomised controlled trial, Trop Med Int Health
Mehta, Mcauley, Brown, Sanchez, Tattersall et al., Hlh Across Speciality Collaboration UK. COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression, Lancet
Meltzer, Best, Zhang, Vokes, Arora et al., Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results, JAMA Netw Open
Merzon, Tworowski, Gorohovski, Vinker, Cohen et al., Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection: an Israeli population-based study, FEBS J
Mushegian, Autophagy and vitamin D, Sci Signal
Pham, Waterhouse, Baxter, Romero, Mcleod et al., The effect of vitamin D supplementation on acute respiratory tract infection in older Australian adults: an analysis of data from the D-Health Trial, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
Pincikova, Nilsson, Moen, Karpati, Fluge et al., Inverse relation between vitamin D and serum total immunoglobulin G in the Scandinavian Cystic Fibrosis Nutritional Study, Eur J Clin Nutr
Rosen, Adams, Bikle, Black, Demay et al., The nonskeletal effects of vitamin D: an Endocrine Society scientific statement, Endocr Rev
Rosen, Clinical practice. Vitamin D insufficiency, N Engl J Med
Sanders, Stuart, Williamson, Simpson, Kotowicz et al., Annual high-dose oral vitamin D and falls and fractures in older women: a randomized controlled trial, JAMA
Sempos, Heijboer, Bikle, Bollerslev, Bouillon et al., Vitamin D assays and the definition of hypovitaminosis D: results from the First International Conference on Controversies in Vitamin D, Br J Clin Pharmacol
Sf, Khasawneh, Alhamad, Healthcare Providers' Perspectives Toward the Integration of over the Counter Supplements During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study from Jordan, Inquiry
Shi, Liu, Fu, Xu, Wu et al., Vitamin D/VDR signaling attenuates lipopolysaccharideinduced acute lung injury by maintaining the integrity of the pulmonary epithelial barrier, Mol Med Rep
Smith, Anderson, Raphael, Maslin, Crozier et al., Effect of annual intramuscular vitamin D on fracture risk in elderly men and women--a population-based, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Rheumatology
Sowah, Fan, Dennett, Hagtvedt, Straube, Vitamin D levels and deficiency with different occupations: a systematic review, BMC Public Health
Uberti, Lattuada, Morsanuto, Nava, Bolis et al., Vitamin D protects human endothelial cells from oxidative stress through the autophagic and survival pathways, J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Van Etten, Mathieu, Immunoregulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: basic concepts, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol
Vazquez, Huerta-Delgado, Castillo, Villarreal-Calderon, Gonzalez-Gil et al., Correlation of Vitamin D with Inflammatory Cytokines, Atherosclerotic Parameters, and Lifestyle Factors in the Setting of Heart Failure: A 12-Month Follow-Up Study, Int J Mol Sci
Villasis-Keever, Lopez-Alarcon, Miranda-Novales, Zurita-Cruz, Vazquez et al., Efficacy and Safety of Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent COVID-19 in Frontline Healthcare Workers. A Randomized Clinical Trial, Arch Med Res
Wang, Dabbas, Laperriere, Bitton, Soualhine et al., Direct and indirect induction by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of the NOD2/CARD15-defensin beta2 innate immune pathway defective in Crohn disease, J Biol Chem
Ye, Tang, Liao, Shaw, Deng et al., Does Serum Vitamin D Level Affect COVID-19 Infection and Its Severity?-A Case-Control Study, J Am Coll Nutr
Yuk, Shin, Lee, Yang, Jin et al., None
Zhang, Ghosh, Basavarajappa, Chen, Shrestha et al., HBD-2 binds SARS-CoV-2 RBD and blocks viral entry: Strategy to combat COVID-19, iScience
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 6]], 'date-time': '2023-03-06T05:28:17Z', 'timestamp': 1678080497682}, 'reference-count': 54, 'publisher': 'Elsevier BV', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 1]], 'date-time': '2023-03-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1677628800000}, 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': ['elsevier.com', 'sciencedirect.com'], 'crossmark-restriction': True}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3]]}, 'DOI': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 5]], 'date-time': '2023-03-05T07:02:47Z', 'timestamp': 1677999767000}, 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/elsevier_cm_policy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'Vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 Infection: SERVE Study (SARS-CoV-2 Exposure and the Role of Vitamin D ' 'among Hospital Employees)', 'prefix': '10.1016', 'author': [ {'given': 'Yi', 'family': 'Liu', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Shannon', 'family': 'Clare', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Gia', 'family': 'D’Erasmo', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Alison', 'family': 'Heilbronner', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Alexander', 'family': 'Dash', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Alexandra', 'family': 'Krez', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Caroline', 'family': 'Zaworski', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Katherine', 'family': 'Haseltine', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Alana', 'family': 'Serota', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Andy', 'family': 'Miller', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Keila', 'family': 'Veiga', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'given': 'Marvin Sandoval', 'family': 'Theresa T. Lu', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Donald J', 'family': 'McMahon', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Jeri W.', 'family': 'Nieves', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Emily Margaret', 'family': 'Stein', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '78', 'reference': [ { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '533', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30120-1', 'article-title': 'An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time', 'volume': '20', 'author': 'Dong', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '881', 'DOI': '10.2310/JIM.0b013e31821b8755', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D and the immune system', 'volume': '59', 'author': 'Aranow', 'year': '2011', 'journal-title': 'J Investig Med'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '456', 'DOI': '10.1210/er.2012-1000', 'article-title': 'The nonskeletal effects of vitamin D: an Endocrine Society scientific ' 'statement', 'volume': '33', 'author': 'Rosen', 'year': '2012', 'journal-title': 'Endocr Rev'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'R133', 'DOI': '10.1530/EJE-20-0665', 'article-title': 'MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Vitamin D and COVID-19', 'volume': '183', 'author': 'Bilezikian', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Eur J Endocrinol'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '287', 'DOI': '10.1007/s11154-021-09683-9', 'article-title': 'Clinical aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vitamin D : COVID-19 and ' 'the endocrine system: special issue for reviews in endocrine and ' 'metabolic disorders (Felipe Casaneuva, Editor in Chief) A. Giustina and ' 'JP Bilezikian, Guest Editors', 'volume': '23', 'author': 'Bandeira', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Rev Endocr Metab Disord'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '231', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.chom.2009.08.004', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D3 induces autophagy in human monocytes/macrophages via ' 'cathelicidin', 'volume': '6', 'author': 'Yuk', 'year': '2009', 'journal-title': 'Cell Host Microbe'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2227', 'DOI': '10.1074/jbc.C109.071225', 'article-title': 'Direct and indirect induction by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of the ' 'NOD2/CARD15-defensin beta2 innate immune pathway defective in Crohn ' 'disease', 'volume': '285', 'author': 'Wang', 'year': '2010', 'journal-title': 'J Biol Chem'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1367', 'DOI': '10.1210/jc.2013-2103', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D protects human endothelial cells from oxidative stress ' 'through the autophagic and survival pathways', 'volume': '99', 'author': 'Uberti', 'year': '2014', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Endocrinol Metab'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib9', 'first-page': '10', 'article-title': 'Autophagy and vitamin D', 'author': 'Mushegian', 'year': '2017', 'journal-title': 'Sci Signal'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '93', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2005.06.002', 'article-title': 'Immunoregulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: basic concepts', 'volume': '97', 'author': 'van Etten', 'year': '2005', 'journal-title': 'J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1186', 'DOI': '10.3892/mmr.2015.4685', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D/VDR signaling attenuates lipopolysaccharideinduced acute lung ' 'injury by maintaining the integrity of the pulmonary epithelial barrier', 'volume': '13', 'author': 'Shi', 'year': '2016', 'journal-title': 'Mol Med Rep'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '103', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.mce.2010.02.013', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D and the intracrinology of innate immunity', 'volume': '321', 'author': 'Hewison', 'year': '2010', 'journal-title': 'Mol Cell Endocrinol'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1148', 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02578.x', 'article-title': 'Effects of vitamin D supplementation to children diagnosed with ' 'pneumonia in Kabul: a randomised controlled trial', 'volume': '15', 'author': 'Manaseki-Holland', 'year': '2010', 'journal-title': 'Trop Med Int Health'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib14', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e561', 'DOI': '10.1542/peds.2011-3029', 'article-title': 'Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation and risk of acute ' 'respiratory infection in Mongolia', 'volume': '130', 'author': 'Camargo', 'year': '2012', 'journal-title': 'Pediatrics'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '276', 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00051-6', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: a ' 'systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised ' 'controlled trials', 'volume': '9', 'author': 'Jolliffe', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib16', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '69', 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30380-6', 'article-title': 'The effect of vitamin D supplementation on acute respiratory tract ' 'infection in older Australian adults: an analysis of data from the ' 'D-Health Trial', 'volume': '9', 'author': 'Pham', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1634', 'DOI': '10.4049/jimmunol.179.3.1634', 'article-title': 'Modulatory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on human B cell ' 'differentiation', 'volume': '179', 'author': 'Chen', 'year': '2007', 'journal-title': 'J Immunol'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '102', 'DOI': '10.1038/ejcn.2010.194', 'article-title': 'Inverse relation between vitamin D and serum total immunoglobulin G in ' 'the Scandinavian Cystic Fibrosis Nutritional Study', 'volume': '65', 'author': 'Pincikova', 'year': '2011', 'journal-title': 'Eur J Clin Nutr'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib19', 'article-title': 'HBD-2 binds SARS-CoV-2 RBD and blocks viral entry: Strategy to combat ' 'COVID-19', 'volume': '25', 'author': 'Zhang', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'iScience'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib20', 'first-page': '20', 'article-title': 'Correlation of Vitamin D with Inflammatory Cytokines, Atherosclerotic ' 'Parameters, and Lifestyle Factors in the Setting of Heart Failure: A ' '12-Month Follow-Up Study', 'author': 'Roffe-Vazquez', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Sci'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1033', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0', 'article-title': 'COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression', 'volume': '395', 'author': 'Mehta', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19722', 'article-title': 'Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics With ' 'COVID-19 Test Results', 'volume': '3', 'author': 'Meltzer', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Netw Open'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1201', 'DOI': '10.1007/s11154-021-09693-7', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D: Dosing, levels, form, and route of administration: Does one ' 'approach fit all?', 'volume': '22', 'author': 'Bilezikian', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Rev Endocr Metab Disord'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '613', 'DOI': '10.1093/ajcn/nqaa029', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D deficiency is associated with reduced mobility after hip ' 'fracture surgery: a prospective study', 'volume': '112', 'author': 'Hao', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Am J Clin Nutr'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib25', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '48', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.nutres.2010.12.001', 'article-title': 'Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults', 'volume': '31', 'author': 'Forrest', 'year': '2011', 'journal-title': 'Nutr Res'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '248', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMcp1009570', 'article-title': 'Clinical practice. Vitamin D insufficiency', 'volume': '364', 'author': 'Rosen', 'year': '2011', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '519', 'DOI': '10.1186/s12889-017-4436-z', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D levels and deficiency with different occupations: a ' 'systematic review', 'volume': '17', 'author': 'Sowah', 'year': '2017', 'journal-title': 'BMC Public Health'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib28', 'first-page': '11', 'article-title': 'Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Medication Practices for Prevention ' 'and Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review', 'author': 'Ayosanmi', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Antibiotics (Basel)'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib29', 'article-title': "Healthcare Providers' Perspectives Toward the Integration of over the " 'Counter Supplements During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study ' 'from Jordan', 'volume': '59', 'author': 'Al-Shatnawi', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Inquiry'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2404', 'DOI': '10.1002/jbmr.4152', 'article-title': 'Adverse Effects of High-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Volumetric ' 'Bone Density Are Greater in Females than Males', 'volume': '35', 'author': 'Burt', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Bone Miner Res'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '96', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41574-021-00593-z', 'article-title': 'The health effects of vitamin D supplementation: evidence from human ' 'studies', 'volume': '18', 'author': 'Bouillon', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Nat Rev Endocrinol'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1815', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2010.594', 'article-title': 'Annual high-dose oral vitamin D and falls and fractures in older women: ' 'a randomized controlled trial', 'volume': '303', 'author': 'Sanders', 'year': '2010', 'journal-title': 'JAMA'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '130', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.07.015', 'article-title': 'Diurnal rhythms of vitamin D binding protein and total and free vitamin ' 'D metabolites', 'volume': '172', 'author': 'Jones', 'year': '2017', 'journal-title': 'J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib34', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e1343', 'DOI': '10.1210/clinem/dgaa733', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D Status in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection', 'volume': '106', 'author': 'Hernandez', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Endocrinol Metab'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2359', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.26726', 'article-title': 'The association between the level of serum 25(OH) vitamin D, obesity, ' 'and underlying diseases with the risk of developing COVID-19 infection: ' 'A case-control study of hospitalized patients in Tehran, Iran', 'volume': '93', 'author': 'Abdollahi', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Med Virol'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib36', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '724', 'DOI': '10.1080/07315724.2020.1826005', 'article-title': 'Does Serum Vitamin D Level Affect COVID-19 Infection and Its ' 'Severity?-A Case-Control Study', 'volume': '40', 'author': 'Ye', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Am Coll Nutr'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib37', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '3693', 'DOI': '10.1111/febs.15495', 'article-title': 'Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of ' 'COVID-19 infection: an Israeli population-based study', 'volume': '287', 'author': 'Merzon', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'FEBS J'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib38', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '390', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018', 'article-title': 'Nutritional status of patients with COVID-19', 'volume': '100', 'author': 'Im', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Int J Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib39', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0239252', 'article-title': 'SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating ' '25-hydroxyvitamin D levels', 'volume': '15', 'author': 'Kaufman', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'PLoS One'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib40', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D and SARS-CoV2 infection, severity and mortality: A systematic ' 'review and meta-analysis', 'volume': '17', 'author': "D'Ecclesiis", 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'PLoS One'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib41', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '545', 'DOI': '10.1007/s00394-020-02372-4', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D and COVID-19 infection and mortality in UK Biobank', 'volume': '60', 'author': 'Hastie', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Eur J Nutr'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib42', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11634', 'article-title': 'Assessment of the Association of Vitamin D Level With SARS-CoV-2 ' 'Seropositivity Among Working-Age Adults', 'volume': '4', 'author': 'Li', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Netw Open'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib43', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '561', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.050', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'Hastie', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Diabetes Metab Syndr'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib44', 'first-page': '14', 'article-title': 'On Behalf Of The NCC. Association of Vitamin D Prescribing and Clinical ' 'Outcomes in Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19', 'author': 'Fairfield', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib45', 'first-page': '14', 'article-title': 'Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on COVID-19 Related Outcomes: A ' 'Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis', 'author': 'Hosseini', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib46', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1275', 'DOI': '10.1093/ajcn/nqaa381', 'article-title': 'Habitual use of vitamin D supplements and risk of coronavirus disease ' '2019 (COVID-19) infection: a prospective study in UK Biobank', 'volume': '113', 'author': 'Ma', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Am J Clin Nutr'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib47', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '423', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.arcmed.2022.04.003', 'article-title': 'Efficacy and Safety of Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent COVID-19 in ' 'Frontline Healthcare Workers. A Randomized Clinical Trial', 'volume': '53', 'author': 'Villasis-Keever', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Arch Med Res'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib48', 'first-page': '14', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D Intake May Reduce SARS-CoV-2 Infection Morbidity in Health ' 'Care Workers', 'author': 'Karonova', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib49', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D Supplements for Prevention of Covid-19 or other Acute ' 'Respiratory Infections: a Phase 3 Randomized Controlled Trial ' '(CORONAVIT)', 'volume': '378', 'author': 'Jolliffe', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib50', 'article-title': 'Prevention of covid-19 and other acute respiratory infections with cod ' 'liver oil supplementation, a low dose vitamin D supplement: quadruple ' 'blinded, randomised placebo controlled trial', 'volume': '378', 'author': 'Brunvoll', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib51', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1852', 'DOI': '10.1093/rheumatology/kem240', 'article-title': 'Effect of annual intramuscular vitamin D on fracture risk in elderly ' 'men and women--a population-based, randomized, double-blind, ' 'placebo-controlled trial', 'volume': '46', 'author': 'Smith', 'year': '2007', 'journal-title': 'Rheumatology (Oxford)'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib52', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2194', 'DOI': '10.1111/bcp.13652', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D assays and the definition of hypovitaminosis D: results from ' 'the First International Conference on Controversies in Vitamin D', 'volume': '84', 'author': 'Sempos', 'year': '2018', 'journal-title': 'Br J Clin Pharmacol'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib53', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '136', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.02.011', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D assays in clinical laboratory: Past, present and future ' 'challenges', 'volume': '175', 'author': 'Atef', 'year': '2018', 'journal-title': 'J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001_bib54', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '204', 'DOI': '10.1097/EDE.0000000000000217', 'article-title': 'Evolving methods for inference in the presence of healthy worker ' 'survivor bias', 'volume': '26', 'author': 'Buckley', 'year': '2015', 'journal-title': 'Epidemiology'}], 'container-title': 'The Journal of Nutrition', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S0022316623352805?httpAccept=text/xml', 'content-type': 'text/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S0022316623352805?httpAccept=text/plain', 'content-type': 'text/plain', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 5]], 'date-time': '2023-03-05T07:03:23Z', 'timestamp': 1677999803000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022316623352805'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3]]}, 'references-count': 54, 'alternative-id': ['S0022316623352805'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['0022-3166'], 'subject': ['Nutrition and Dietetics', 'Medicine (miscellaneous)'], 'container-title-short': 'The Journal of Nutrition', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3]]}, 'assertion': [ {'value': 'Elsevier', 'name': 'publisher', 'label': 'This article is maintained by'}, { 'value': 'Vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 Infection: SERVE Study (SARS-CoV-2 Exposure and the ' 'Role of Vitamin D among Hospital Employees)', 'name': 'articletitle', 'label': 'Article Title'}, {'value': 'The Journal of Nutrition', 'name': 'journaltitle', 'label': 'Journal Title'}, { 'value': 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.001', 'name': 'articlelink', 'label': 'CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version'}, {'value': 'article', 'name': 'content_type', 'label': 'Content Type'}, { 'value': '© 2023 American Society for Nutrition. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights ' 'reserved.', 'name': 'copyright', 'label': 'Copyright'}]}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit