Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All iota‑carrageenan studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchIota-carrageenanIota-carragee.. (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Antihistamines Meta
Azvudine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Bromhexine Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Quercetin Meta
Favipiravir Meta Remdesivir Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Efficacy of Carrageenan Nasal and Throat Spray for COVID-19 Prophylaxis - A Double Blind Randomised Placebo-controlled Trial

Jessop et al., NCT04590365, ICE-COVID, NCT04590365
Nov 2022  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
480 participant iota-carrageenan prophylaxis RCT with results not reported over 1.5 years after completion.
Jessop et al., 18 Nov 2022, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, placebo-controlled, United Kingdom, trial NCT04590365 (history) (ICE-COVID). Contact:,,,
This PaperIota-carragee..All
A study protocol for a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of carrageenan nasal and throat spray for COVID-19 prophylaxis—ICE-COVID
Z M Jessop, J Gibson, J Y Lim, T H Jovic, E Combellack, T D Dobbs, K Carter, S Hiles, S Islam, B Healy, I Humphreys, R Eccles, H A Hutchings, I S Whitaker
Trials, doi:10.1186/s13063-022-06685-z
Introduction: At present, vaccines form the only mode of prophylaxis against COVID-19. The time needed to achieve mass global vaccination and the emergence of new variants warrants continued research into other COVID-19 prevention strategies. The severity of COVID-19 infection is thought to be associated with the initial viral load, and for infection to occur, viruses including SARS-CoV-2 must first penetrate the respiratory mucus and attach to the host cell surface receptors. Carrageenan, a sulphated polysaccharide extracted from red edible seaweed, has shown efficacy against a wide range of viruses in clinical trials through the prevention of viral entry into respiratory host cells. Carrageenan has also demonstrated in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. Methods and analysis: A single-centre, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase III trial was designed. Participants randomised in a 1:1 allocation to either the treatment arm, verum Coldamaris plus (1.2 mg iotacarrageenan (Carragelose ® ), 0.4 mg kappa-carrageenan, 0.5% sodium chloride and purified water), or placebo arm, Coldamaris sine (0.5% sodium chloride) spray applied daily to their nose and throat for 8 weeks, while completing a daily symptom tracker questionnaire for a total of 10 weeks. Primary outcome: Acquisition of COVID-19 infection as confirmed by a positive PCR swab taken at symptom onset or seroconversion during the study. Secondary outcomes include symptom type, severity and duration, subsequent familial/household COVID-19 infection and infection with non-COVID-19 upper respiratory tract infections. A withintrial economic evaluation will be undertaken, with effects expressed as quality-adjusted life years. Discussion: This is a single-centre, phase III, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess whether carrageenan nasal and throat spray reduces the risk of development and severity of COVID-19. If proven effective, the self-administered prophylactic spray would have wider utility for key workers and the general population.
Strengths and limitations of this study • A randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial • Secondary outcomes designed to improve understanding of the effects of carrageenan nasal and throat sprays on COVID-19 transmission, acquisition, severity and/or duration of resultant infection and other acute respiratory infections • Roll out of the vaccination programme has reduced the eligible participant population from which to recruit Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. org/ 10. 1186/ s13063-022-06685-z. Additional file 1. Authors' contributions ZMJ conceived the trial idea. ZMJ, JG, KC, SH, HAH, ISW and RE planned the trial. ZMJ, JG, KC, SH, TJ, EC, TDD, BH, IH, RE, HAH and ISW contributed to writing the trial protocol. ZMJ, JG, KC and HAH contributed to seeking ethical approval. ZMJ, JG, SH, TDD and JYL contributed to data collection and monitoring. All the authors read, edited and approved the final manuscript. Funding This study is funded by Boots Walgreens Alliance and Marinomed Biotech AG. The views and opinions expressed therein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the NHS, Boots Walgreens Alliance or Marinomed Biotech AG. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection, analysis or interpretation. Declarations Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to..
Baba, Snoeck, Pauwels, De Clercq, Sulfated polysaccharides are potent and selective inhibitors of various enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus, Antimicrob Agents Chemother
Bansil, Turner, The biology of mucus: Composition, synthesis and organization, Adv Drug Deliv Rev
Buck, Thompson, Roberts, Müller, Lowy et al., Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of papillomavirus infection, PLoS Pathog
Cai, Huang, Yu, Zhu, Xia et al., COVID-19: Abnormal liver function tests, J Hepatol
Campo, Kawano, Silva Db Da, Carvalho, Carrageenans: biological properties, chemical modifications and structural analysis -A review, Carbohydr Polym
Carlucci, Scolaro, Noseda, Cerezo, Damonte, Protective effect of a natural carrageenan on genital herpes simplex virus infection in mice, Antiviral Res
Dong, Du, Gardner, An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time, Lancet Infect Dis
Eccles, Iota-Carrageenan as an Antiviral Treatment for the Common Cold, Open Virol J
Eccles, Meier, Jawad, Weinmüllner, Grassauer et al., Efficacy and safety of an antiviral Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study in volunteers with early symptoms of the common cold, Respir Res
Eccles, Winther, Johnston, Robinson, Trampisch et al., Efficacy and safety of iota-carrageenan nasal spray versus placebo in early treatment of the common cold in adults: the ICICC trial, Respir Res, doi:10.1186/s12931-015-0281-8
Emary, Golubchik, Aley, Ariani, Angus et al., Efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern 202012/01 (B.1.1.7): an exploratory analysis of a randomised controlled trial, Lancet
Ferrari, Motta, Strollo, Banfi, Locatelli, Routine blood tests as a potential diagnostic tool for COVID-19, Clin Chem Lab Med
Gerber, Dutcher, Adams, Sherman, Protective Effect of Seaweed Extracts for Chicken Embryos Infected with Influenza B or Mumps Virus, Proc Soc Exp Biol Med
Girond, Crance, Van Cuyck-Gandre, Renaudet, Deloince, Antiviral activity of carrageenan on hepatitis A virus replication in cell culture, Res Virol
González, Alarcón, Carrasco, Polysaccharides as antiviral agents: antiviral activity of carrageenan, Antimicrob Agents Chemother
Grassauer, Weinmuellner, Meier, Pretsch, Prieschl-Grassauer et al., Iota-Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of rhinovirus infection, Virol J
Group, EuroQol--a new facility for the measurement of healthrelated quality of life, Health Policy Amst Neth
Grove, Marsh, The cell biology of receptor-mediated virus entry, J Cell Biol
Guo, Zhu, Yu, Zhang, Wang, Inhibitory effect of iota-carrageenan on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in vitro, Antivir Ther
Horby, Huntley, Davies, Edmunds, Ferguson et al., None
Ilie, Stefanescu, Smith, The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality, Aging Clin Exp Res
Karlsson, Fraenkel, Covid-19: risks to healthcare workers and their families, BMJ
Klompas, Baker, Rhee, Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Theoretical Considerations and Available Evidence, JAMA
Koenighofer, Lion, Bodenteich, Prieschl-Grassauer, Grassauer et al., Carrageenan nasal spray in virus confirmed common cold: individual patient data analysis of two randomized controlled trials, Multidiscip Respir Med
Lancet, The plight of essential workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, Lancet
Leibbrandt, Meier, König-Schuster, Weinmüllner, Kalthoff et al., Iota-carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of influenza A virus infection, PloS One
Liu, Liao, Wan, Xiang, Zhang, Correlation Between Relative Nasopharyngeal Virus RNA Load and Lymphocyte Count Disease Severity in Patients with COVID-19, Viral Immunol
Liu, Liu, Plante, The N501Y spike substitution enhances SARS-CoV-2 transmission, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.08.434499
Ludwig, Enzenhofer, Schneider, Rauch, Bodenteich et al., Efficacy of a carrageenan nasal spray in patients with common cold: a randomized controlled trial, Respir Res
Morokutti-Kurz, Graf, Grassauer, SARS-CoV-2 in-vitro neutralization assay reveals inhibition of virus entry by iota-carrageenan, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.224733
Mutambudzi, Niedzwiedz, Macdonald, Leyland, Mair et al., Occupation and risk of severe COVID-19: prospective cohort study of 120 075 UK Biobank participants, Occup Environ Med
Nguyen, Drew, Graham, Joshi, Guo et al., Risk of COVID-19 among front-line health-care workers and the general community: a prospective cohort study, Lancet Public Health
Nice, Guide to the methods of technology appraisal
Nice, Position statement on use of the EQ-5D-5L value set for England
Ovl, Kim, Park, Usability and user experience of medical devices: An overview of the current state, analysis methodologies, and future challenges, Int J Ind Ergon
Pleil, Coyne, Reese, Jumadilova, Rovner et al., The Validation of Patient-Rated Global Assessments of Treatment Benefit, Satisfaction, and Willingness to Continue-The BSW, Value Health
Pujol, Scolaro, Ciancia, Matulewicz, Cerezo et al., Antiviral activity of a carrageenan from Gigartina skottsbergii against intraperitoneal murine herpes simplex virus infection, Planta Med
Qin, Zhou, Hu, Zhang, Yang et al., Dysregulation of Immune Response in Patients With Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am
Shah, Wood, Gribben, Caldwell, Bishop et al., Risk of hospital admission with coronavirus disease 2019 in healthcare workers and their households: nationwide linkage cohort study, BMJ
Shields, Faustini, Perez-Toledo, Jossi, Aldera et al., SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and asymptomatic viral carriage in healthcare workers: a cross-sectional study, Thorax
Smit, Marinosci, Agoritsas, Calmy, Prophylaxis for COVID-19: a systematic review, Clin Microbiol Infect
Talarico, Pujol, Zibetti, Faría, Noseda et al., The antiviral activity of sulfated polysaccharides against dengue virus is dependent on virus serotype and host cell, Antiviral Res
Tang, Li, Wang, Sun, Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia, J Thromb Haemost JTH
Tegally, Wilkinson, Giovanetti, Emergence and rapid spread of a new severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineage with multiple spike mutations in South Africa, MedRxviv, doi:10.1101/2020.12.21.20248640
Volz, Mishra, Chand, Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Lineage B.1.1.7 in England: Insights from linking epidemiological and genetic data, MedRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.12.30.20249034
Wan, Yi, Fan, Lv, Zhang et al., Relationships among lymphocyte subsets, cytokines, and the pulmonary inflammation index in coronavirus (COVID-19) infected patients, Br J Haematol
Wang, Fang, Zhu, Chen, Ding et al., Clinical characteristics of non-critically ill patients with novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in a Fangcang Hospital, Clin Microbiol Infect Off Publ Eur Soc Clin Microbiol Infect Dis
Wang, Zhang, Hao, Zhang, Cui et al., In vitro inhibitory effect of carrageenan oligosaccharide on influenza A H1N1 virus, Antiviral Res
Wu, Werner, Koch, Choi, Narayanan et al., Serum Neutralizing Activity Elicited by mRNA-1273 Vaccine, N Engl J Med
Xie, Liu, Liu, Zhang, Zou et al., Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 spike 69/70 deletion, E484K and N501Y variants by BNT162b2 vaccine-elicited sera, Nat Med
Zhang, Yan, Fan, Liu, Liu et al., D-dimer levels on admission to predict in-hospital mortality in patients with Covid-19, J Thromb Haemost JTH
Zhou, Yu, Du, Fan, Liu et al., Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop