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Global and regional prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in population-based studies from 2000 to 2022: A pooled analysis of 7.9 million participants

Cui et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2023.1070808
Mar 2023  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
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4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19early.org
Meta analysis of the global and regional prevalence of vitamin D deficiency from 308 studies, showing that globally 48% of people had vitamin D levels <50 nmol/l. The prevalence in winter-spring was 1.7 times that in summer-autum.
Cui et al., 17 Mar 2023, peer-reviewed, 6 authors. Contact: zhuangyan2512@163.com, doctorwanghu@163.com.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Global and regional prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in population-based studies from to : A pooled analysis of . million participants
Donato Angelino, Justyna Godos, Wolfgang Högler, Yan Zhuang, Hu Wang, Aiyong Cui, Tiansong Zhang, Peilong Xiao, Zhiqiang Fan
and Zhuang Y ( ) Global and regional prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in population-based studies from to : A pooled analysis of . million participants.
Author contributions AC, TZ, PX, and YZ planned the study, designed the methods, and did the statistical analyses. AC and PX contributed to the literature review. AC, PX, and HW extracted data. AC prepared the first draft of the manuscript with important contributions from TZ, PX, and YZ. All authors interpreted the results, commented on drafts of the manuscript, and approved the final version. Conflict of interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Publisher's note All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Supplementary material The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2023. 1070808/full#supplementary-material
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We aim to estimate the global and regional prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in ' 'people aged 1 year or older from 2000 to ' '2022.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>We systematically ' 'searched Web of Science, PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, Scopus, and Google databases on December ' '31, 2021, and updated them on August 20, 2022, without language and time restrictions. ' 'Meanwhile, we identified references of relevant system reviews and eligible articles and ' 'included the latest and unpublished data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination ' 'Survey (NHANES, 2015–2016 and 2017–2018) database. The studies investigating the prevalence ' 'of vitamin D deficiency in population-based studies were included. A standardized data ' 'extraction form was used to collect information from eligible studies. We used a ' 'random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the global and regional prevalence of vitamin D ' 'deficiency. We stratified meta-analyses by latitude, season, six WHO regions, the World Bank ' 'income groups, gender, and age groups. This study was registered with PROSPERO ' '(CRD42021292586).</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Findings</jats:title><jats:p>Out ' 'of 67,340 records searched, 308 studies with 7,947,359 participants from 81 countries were ' 'eligible for this study, 202 (7,634,261 participants), 284 (1,475,339 participants), and 165 ' '(561,978 participants) studies for the prevalence of serum 25(OH)D &amp;lt;30, &amp;lt;50, ' 'and &amp;lt;75 nmol/L, respectively. We found that globally, 15.7% (95% CrI 13.7–17.8), 47.9% ' '(95% CrI 44.9–50.9), and 76·6% (95% CrI 74.0–79.1) of participants had serum ' '25-hydroxyvitamin D levels less than 30, 50, and 75 nmol/l, respectively; the prevalence ' 'slightly decreased from 2000–2010 to 2011–2022, but it was still at a high level; people ' 'living in high latitude areas had a higher prevalence; the prevalence in winter-spring was ' '1.7 (95% CrI 1.4–2.0) times that in summer-autumn; the Eastern Mediterranean region and ' 'Lower-middle-income countries had a higher prevalence; females were vulnerable to vitamin D ' 'deficiency; gender, sampling frame, detection assays, sampling region, time of data ' 'collection, season, and other factors contributed to heterogeneity between the included ' 'studies.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Interpretation</jats:title><jats:p>Globally, ' 'vitamin D deficiency remained prevalent from 2000 to 2022. The high prevalence of vitamin D ' 'deficiency would increase the global burden of disease. Therefore, governments, policymakers, ' 'health workers, and individuals should attach importance to the high prevalence of vitamin D ' 'deficiency and take its prevention as a public health ' 'priority.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Systematic review ' 'registration</jats:title><jats:p><jats:ext-link>https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021292586</jats:ext-link>, ' 'PROSPERO CRD42021292586.</jats:p></jats:sec>', 'DOI': '10.3389/fnut.2023.1070808', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 17]], 'date-time': '2023-03-17T12:53:53Z', 'timestamp': 1679057633000}, 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/crossmark-policy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'Global and regional prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in population-based studies from 2000 to ' '2022: A pooled analysis of 7.9 million participants', 'prefix': '10.3389', 'volume': '10', 'author': [ {'given': 'Aiyong', 'family': 'Cui', 'sequence': 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'volume': '37', 'author': 'Thacher', 'year': '2016', 'journal-title': 'Public Health Rev.'}], 'container-title': 'Frontiers in Nutrition', 'original-title': [], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2023.1070808/full', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 17]], 'date-time': '2023-03-17T12:53:57Z', 'timestamp': 1679057637000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2023.1070808/full'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 17]]}, 'references-count': 46, 'alternative-id': ['10.3389/fnut.2023.1070808'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2023.1070808', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2296-861X'], 'subject': ['Nutrition and Dietetics', 'Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism', 'Food Science'], 'container-title-short': 'Front. Nutr.', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 17]]}}
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