Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers are not associated with increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection
et al., Journal of Travel Medicine,
Retrospective 14,520 patients in Israel, 1,317 testing positive, showing no significant difference in vitamin D levels (23.6ng/mL and 24.1ng/mL for positive and negative cases respectively).
Chodick et al., 14 May 2020, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
Abstract: Journal of Travel Medicine, 2020, 1–3
Advance Access Publication Date: 14 May 2020
Gabriel Chodick , PhD1,2,*, Amir Nutman, MD1,3, Naama Yiekutiel, MSc2 and
Varda Shalev, MD1,2
1 Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2 Maccabi Institute for Research & Innovation, Maccabi
Healthcare Services, 27 Hamered Street, Tel Aviv, 68125 Israel and 3 National Center for Infection Control and Antibiotic
Resistance, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +972-3-5143755, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Submitted 25 March 2020; Revised 6 April 2020; Editorial Decision 28 April 2020; Accepted 28 April 2020
Key words: Covid19, Israel, anti-hypertensive, Vitamin D, BMI, body mass index, hypertension, obesity, ACE2 receptor
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic
caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
(SARS-CoV-2) has swept across the globe and put millions of
lives at stake.1 SARS-CoV-2 binds to the host cell’s membrane
via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), an enzyme that
physiologically inhibits the renin–angiotensin system (RAS).2
Consequently, concerns were raised regarding the use of RAS
inhibitors, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
(ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and their potential role in increasing ACE2 expression and subsequent elevated
risk of COVID-19 infection.3–6
Currently, data from COVID-19 patients regarding the use of
RAS inhibitors and infection risk are limited. The objective of this
cross-sectional real-world data analysis was therefore to assess
whether the use of RAS inhibitors may increase the likelihood
of positive results among tested members of Maccabi Health
Services (MHS), a large health organization in Israel.
Using MHS database, we have identified all 14 520 confirmed
cases of COVID-19, defined as a positive result on real-time
reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
of nasal and throat swab specimens. Criteria for testing were
according to guidelines published by the Ministry of Health
(Guidelines for coping with the novel coronavirus, 2020, Ministry of Health, Israel). A total of 1317 (9%) cases were found
We collected information on demographics, the most recent
document body mass index (BMI), medical conditions, lab tests
results (e.g. last vitamin D and B12) and dispensed of prescribed medications, including RAS inhibitors, anytime between
1 January 2020 and the date of first SARS-COV-2 test.
Multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess
the independent adjusted relationship between the history of dispensed medication and SARS-COV-2 positivity with adjustment
to age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), BMI and co-morbidities.
Interactions between ACEI status and age were examined and
found insignificant. Assuming that the prevalence of patients
treated for hypertension with ACEIs/ARBs in MHS is 10%, a
minimum of 623 positive patients were required to calculate
an odds ratio (OR) of two or above at a P value < 0.05 and
a statistical power of 95%. All analyses were conducted with
IBM-SPSS version 25 and R software version 3.6.
In contrast to SARS-COV-19 negative cases, positive cases
were significantly (P < 0.001) more likely to be males (59.8% vs
46.1%), older (40.6 vs 37.0 year), and reside in low SES areas
(27.9 vs 12.7%), primarily in ultra-orthodox..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and
treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should
be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention
is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not
provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified
physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and
benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC
provide treatment protocols.