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Association of ApaI rs7975232 and BsmI rs1544410 in clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients according to different SARS-CoV-2 variants

Al-Gharrawi et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-30859-7
Mar 2023  
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Retrospective 3,184 patients in Iran, showing COVID-19 outcomes for specific variants were associated with genotypes of the ApaI rs7975232 and BsmI rs1544410 vitamin D receptor polymorphisms.
Al-Gharrawi et al., 3 Mar 2023, Iran, peer-reviewed, mean age 53.0, 3 authors, study period November 2020 - February 2022. Contact:,
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Association of ApaI rs7975232 and BsmI rs1544410 in clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients according to different SARS-CoV-2 variants
Ayad Naji Radha Al-Gharrawi, Enayat Anvari, Abolfazl Fateh
Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-30859-7
A growing body of research has shown how important vitamin D is in the prognosis of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19 ). The vitamin D receptor is necessary for vitamin D to perform its effects, and its polymorphisms can help in this regard. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether the association of ApaI rs7975232 and BsmI rs1544410 polymorphisms in different severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants were influential in the outcomes of COVID-19. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was utilized to determine the different genotypes of ApaI rs7975232 and BsmI rs1544410 in 1734 and 1450 patients who had recovered and deceased, respectively. Our finding revealed that the ApaI rs7975232 AA genotype in the Delta and Omicron BA.5 and the CA genotype in the Delta and Alpha variants were associated with higher mortality rate. Also, the BsmI rs1544410 GG genotype in the Delta and Omicron BA.5 and the GA genotype in the Delta and Alpha variants were related to a higher mortality rate. The A-G haplotype was linked with COVID-19 mortality in both the Alpha and Delta variants. The A-A haplotype for the Omicron BA.5 variants was statistically significant. In conclusion, our research revealed a connection between SARS-CoV-2 variants and the impacts of ApaI rs7975232 and BsmI rs1544410 polymorphisms. However, more research is still needed to substantiate our findings. levels in patients with the Delta variant were much higher. Also, in this study, there was a strong LD between BsmI rs1544410 and ApaI rs7975232. According to our findings, the C-A haplotype was more common among all SARS-CoV-2 variations. The A-G haplotype was linked with COVID-19 mortality in both the Alpha and Delta variants. The A-A haplotype for the Omicron variants was statistically significant. These two SNPs may likely function differently in distinct SARS-CoV-2 variants. However, the mechanism underlying this divergence remains unknown. There were several limitations in our study that should be considered. We did not have any healthy controls who had not previously suffered from COVID-19. Besides, previous vaccination information of all patients was not available. Moreover, this study was conducted in only one population with the same ethnicity. To generalize the relationship between these two polymorphisms to the whole society, more studies should be done on different races in Iran. In conclusion, our study showed that the serum vitamin D level and BsmI rs1544410 and ApaI rs7975232 polymorphisms were related to the mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 with different variants. The COVID-19 mortality rate was related to ApaI rs7975232 CA genotype in the Alpha variant and with AA and CA genotypes in the Delta variant and with AA genotype in the Omicron BA.5 variant. Moreover, in BsmI rs1544410 polymorphisms, the mortality rate was correlated..
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