Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
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Darunavir for COVID-19

Darunavir has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Moura et al., Converging Paths: A Comprehensive Review of the Synergistic Approach between Complementary Medicines and Western Medicine in Addressing COVID-19 in 2020, BioMed, doi:10.3390/biomed3020025
The rapid spread of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic. Although specific vaccines are available and natural drugs are being researched, supportive care and specific treatments to alleviate symptoms and improve patient quality of life remain critical. Chinese medicine (CM) has been employed in China due to the similarities between the epidemiology, genomics, and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Moreover, the integration of other traditional oriental medical systems into the broader framework of integrative medicine can offer a powerful approach to managing the disease. Additionally, it has been reported that integrated medicine has better effects and does not increase adverse drug reactions in the context of COVID-19. This article examines preventive measures, potential infection mechanisms, and immune responses in Western medicine (WM), as well as the pathophysiology based on principles of complementary medicine (CM). The convergence between WM and CM approaches, such as the importance of maintaining a strong immune system and promoting preventive care measures, is also addressed. Current treatment options, traditional therapies, and classical prescriptions based on empirical knowledge are also explored, with individual patient circumstances taken into account. An analysis of the potential benefits and challenges associated with the integration of complementary and Western medicine (WM) in the treatment of COVID-19 can provide valuable guidance, enrichment, and empowerment for future research endeavors.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Astasio-Picado et al., Therapeutic Targets in the Virological Mechanism and in the Hyperinflammatory Response of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Applied Sciences, doi:10.3390/app13074471
This work is a bibliographic review. The search for the necessary information was carried out in the months of November 2022 and January 2023. The databases used were as follows: Pubmed, Academic Google, Scielo, Scopus, and Cochrane library. Results: In total, 101 articles were selected after a review of 486 articles from databases and after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The update on the molecular mechanism of human coronavirus (HCoV) infection was reviewed, describing possible therapeutic targets in the viral response phase. There are different strategies to prevent or hinder the introduction of the viral particle, as well as the replicative mechanism ((protease inhibitors and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)). The second phase of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) involves the activation of hyperinflammatory cascades of the host’s immune system. It is concluded that there are potential therapeutic targets and drugs under study in different proinflammatory pathways such as hydroxychloroquine, JAK inhibitors, interleukin 1 and 6 inhibitors, and interferons.
Gautam et al., Promising Repurposed Antiviral Molecules to Combat SARS-CoV-2: A Review, Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, doi:10.2174/1389201024666230302113110
Abstract: COVID-19, an extremely transmissible and pathogenic viral disease, triggered a global pandemic that claimed lives worldwide. To date, there is no clear and fully effective treatment for COVID-19 disease. Nevertheless, the urgency to discover treatments that can turn the tide has led to the development of a variety of preclinical drugs that are potential candidates for probative results. Although most of these supplementary drugs are constantly being tested in clinical trials against COVID-19, recognized organizations have aimed to outline the prospects in which their use could be considered. A narrative assessment of current articles on COVID-19 disease and its therapeutic regulation was performed. This review outlines the use of various potential treatments against SARS CoV-2, categorized as fusion inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, which include antiviral drugs such as Umifenovir, Baricitinib, Camostatmesylate, Nafamostatmesylate, Kaletra, Paxlovide, Darunavir, Atazanavir, Remdesivir, Molnupiravir, Favipiravir, and Ribavirin. To understand the virology of SARS-CoV-2, potential therapeutic approaches for the treatment of COVID-19 disease, synthetic methods of potent drug candidates, and their mechanisms of action have been addressed in this review. It intends to help readers approach the accessible statistics on the helpful treatment strategies for COVID-19 disease and to serve as a valuable resource for future research in this area.
Guo et al., Enhanced compound-protein binding affinity prediction by representing protein multimodal information via a coevolutionary strategy, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbac628
Abstract Due to the lack of a method to efficiently represent the multimodal information of a protein, including its structure and sequence information, predicting compound-protein binding affinity (CPA) still suffers from low accuracy when applying machine-learning methods. To overcome this limitation, in a novel end-to-end architecture (named FeatNN), we develop a coevolutionary strategy to jointly represent the structure and sequence features of proteins and ultimately optimize the mathematical models for predicting CPA. Furthermore, from the perspective of data-driven approach, we proposed a rational method that can utilize both high- and low-quality databases to optimize the accuracy and generalization ability of FeatNN in CPA prediction tasks. Notably, we visually interpret the feature interaction process between sequence and structure in the rationally designed architecture. As a result, FeatNN considerably outperforms the state-of-the-art (SOTA) baseline in virtual drug evaluation tasks, indicating the feasibility of this approach for practical use. FeatNN provides an outstanding method for higher CPA prediction accuracy and better generalization ability by efficiently representing multimodal information of proteins via a coevolutionary strategy.
Zhong et al., Recent advances in small-molecular therapeutics for COVID-19, Precision Clinical Medicine, doi:10.1093/pcmedi/pbac024
Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic poses a fundamental challenge to global health. Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, great efforts have been made to identify antiviral strategies and develop therapeutic drugs to combat the disease. There are different strategies for developing small molecular anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, including targeting coronavirus structural proteins (e.g. spike protein), non-structural proteins (nsp) (e.g. RdRp, Mpro, PLpro, helicase, nsp14, and nsp16), host proteases (e.g. TMPRSS2, cathepsin, and furin) and the pivotal proteins mediating endocytosis (e.g. PIKfyve), as well as developing endosome acidification agents and immune response modulators. Favipiravir and chloroquine are the anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents that were identified earlier in this epidemic and repurposed for COVID-19 clinical therapy based on these strategies. However, their efficacies are controversial. Currently, three small molecular anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents, remdesivir, molnupiravir, and Paxlovid (PF-07321332 plus ritonavir), have been granted emergency use authorization or approved for COVID-19 therapy in many countries due to their significant curative effects in phase III trials. Meanwhile, a large number of promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug candidates have entered clinical evaluation. The development of these drugs brings hope for us to finally conquer COVID-19. In this account, we conducted a comprehensive review of the recent advances in small molecule anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents according to the target classification. Here we present all the approved drugs and most of the important drug candidates for each target, and discuss the challenges and perspectives for the future research and development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs.
Talluri, S., Molecular Docking and Virtual Screening Based Prediction of Drugs for COVID-19, Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening, doi:10.2174/1386207323666200814132149
Aims: To predict potential drugs for COVID-19 by using molecular docking for virtual screening of drugs approved for other clinical applications. Background: SARS-CoV-2 is the betacoronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. It was listed as a potential global health threat by the WHO due to high mortality, high basic reproduction number, and lack of clinically approved drugs and vaccines. The genome of the virus responsible for COVID-19 has been sequenced. In addition, the three-dimensional structure of the main protease has been determined experimentally. Objective: To identify potential drugs that can be repurposed for treatment of COVID-19 by using molecular docking based virtual screening of all approved drugs. Methods: A list of drugs approved for clinical use was obtained from the SuperDRUG2 database. The structure of the target in the apo form, as well as structures of several target-ligand complexes, were obtained from RCSB PDB. The structure of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro determined from X-ray diffraction data was used as the target. Data regarding drugs in clinical trials for COVID-19 was obtained from Input for molecular docking based virtual screening was prepared by using Obabel and customized python, bash, and awk scripts. Molecular docking calculations were carried out with Vina and SMINA, and the docked conformations were analyzed and visualized with PLIP, Pymol, and Rasmol. Results: Among the drugs that are being tested in clinical trials for COVID-19, Danoprevir and Darunavir were predicted to have the highest binding affinity for the Main protease (Mpro) target of SARS-CoV-2. Saquinavir and Beclabuvir were identified as the best novel candidates for COVID-19 therapy by using Virtual Screening of drugs approved for other clinical indications. Conclusion: Protease inhibitors approved for treatment of other viral diseases have the potential to be repurposed for treatment of COVID-19.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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