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Amantadine for COVID-19

Amantadine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Fani et al., Targeting host calcium channels and viroporins: a promising strategy for SARS-CoV-2 therapy, Future Virology, doi:10.2217/fvl-2022-0203
Despite passing the pandemic phase of the COVID-19, researchers are still investigating various drugs. Previous evidence suggests that blocking the calcium channels may be a suitable treatment option. Ca2+ is required to enhance the fusion process of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Also, some important inflammatory factors during SARS-CoV-2 infection are dependent on Ca2+ level. On the other hand, viroporins have emerged as attractive targets for antiviral therapy due to their essential role in viral replication and pathogenesis. By inhibiting the host calcium channels and viroporins, it is possible to limit the spread of infection. Therefore, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and drugs targeting Viroporins can be considered an effective option in the fight against SARS-CoV-2.
Qu et al., A new integrated framework for the identification of potential virus–drug associations, Frontiers in Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2023.1179414
IntroductionWith the increasingly serious problem of antiviral drug resistance, drug repurposing offers a time-efficient and cost-effective way to find potential therapeutic agents for disease. Computational models have the ability to quickly predict potential reusable drug candidates to treat diseases.MethodsIn this study, two matrix decomposition-based methods, i.e., Matrix Decomposition with Heterogeneous Graph Inference (MDHGI) and Bounded Nuclear Norm Regularization (BNNR), were integrated to predict anti-viral drugs. Moreover, global leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV), local LOOCV, and 5-fold cross-validation were implemented to evaluate the performance of the proposed model based on datasets of DrugVirus that consist of 933 known associations between 175 drugs and 95 viruses.ResultsThe results showed that the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of global LOOCV and local LOOCV are 0.9035 and 0.8786, respectively. The average AUC and the standard deviation of the 5-fold cross-validation for DrugVirus datasets are 0.8856 ± 0.0032. We further implemented cross-validation based on MDAD and aBiofilm, respectively, to evaluate the performance of the model. In particle, MDAD (aBiofilm) dataset contains 2,470 (2,884) known associations between 1,373 (1,470) drugs and 173 (140) microbes. In addition, two types of case studies were carried out further to verify the effectiveness of the model based on the DrugVirus and MDAD datasets. The results of the case studies supported the effectiveness of MHBVDA in identifying potential virus-drug associations as well as predicting potential drugs for new microbes.
Breitinger et al., Patch-clamp studies and cell viability assays suggest a distinct site for viroporin inhibitors on the E protein of SARS-CoV-2, Virology Journal, doi:10.1186/s12985-023-02095-y
Abstract Background SARS-CoV-2 has caused a worldwide pandemic since December 2019 and the search for pharmaceutical targets against COVID-19 remains an important challenge. Here, we studied the envelope protein E of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, a highly conserved 75–76 amino acid viroporin that is crucial for virus assembly and release. E protein channels were recombinantly expressed in HEK293 cells, a membrane-directing signal peptide ensured transfer to the plasma membrane. Methods Viroporin channel activity of both E proteins was investigated using patch-clamp electrophysiology in combination with a cell viability assay. We verified inhibition by classical viroporin inhibitors amantadine, rimantadine and 5-(N,N-hexamethylene)-amiloride, and tested four ivermectin derivatives. Results Classical inhibitors showed potent activity in patch-clamp recordings and viability assays. In contrast, ivermectin and milbemycin inhibited the E channel in patch-clamp recordings but displayed only moderate activity on the E protein in the cell viability assay, which is also sensitive to general cytotoxic activity of the tested compounds. Nemadectin and ivermectin aglycon were inactive. All ivermectin derivatives were cytotoxic at concentrations > 5 µM, i.e. below the level required for E protein inhibition. Conclusions This study demonstrates direct inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 E protein by classical viroporin inhibitors. Ivermectin and milbemycin inhibit the E protein channel but their cytotoxicity argues against clinical application.
Fam et al., Channel activity of SARS-CoV-2 viroporin ORF3a inhibited by adamantanes and phenolic plant metabolites, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-31764-9
AbstractSARS-CoV-2 has been responsible for the major worldwide pandemic of COVID-19. Despite the enormous success of vaccination campaigns, virus infections are still prevalent and effective antiviral therapies are urgently needed. Viroporins are essential for virus replication and release, and are thus promising therapeutic targets. Here, we studied the expression and function of recombinant ORF3a viroporin of SARS-CoV-2 using a combination of cell viability assays and patch-clamp electrophysiology. ORF3a was expressed in HEK293 cells and transport to the plasma membrane verified by a dot blot assay. Incorporation of a membrane-directing signal peptide increased plasma membrane expression. Cell viability tests were carried out to measure cell damage associated with ORF3a activity, and voltage-clamp recordings verified its channel activity. The classical viroporin inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine inhibited ORF3a channels. A series of ten flavonoids and polyphenolics were studied. Kaempferol, quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate, nobiletin, resveratrol and curcumin were ORF3a inhibitors, with IC50 values ranging between 1 and 6 µM, while 6-gingerol, apigenin, naringenin and genistein were inactive. For flavonoids, inhibitory activity could be related to the pattern of OH groups on the chromone ring system. Thus, the ORF3a viroporin of SARS-CoV-2 may indeed be a promising target for antiviral drugs.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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