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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 35% Improvement Relative Risk Ho et al. Exercise for COVID-19 Prophylaxis Does physical activity reduce risk for COVID-19? Retrospective 138,475 patients in the United Kingdom Lower hospitalization with higher activity levels (p=0.007) Ho et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040402 Favors exercise Favors inactivity
Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for COVID-19, and comparison to risk factors for influenza and pneumonia: results from a UK Biobank prospective cohort study
Ho et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040402
Ho et al., Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for COVID-19, and comparison to risk factors for influenza and.., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040402
Nov 2020   Source   PDF  
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UK Biobank retrospective 235,928 participants using walking pace as a proxy for physical fitness, showing lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalization with an average vs. slow walking pace.
risk of hospitalization, 34.6% lower, RR 0.65, p = 0.007, high activity levels 213 of 123,588 (0.2%), low activity levels 59 of 14,887 (0.4%), adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high activity levels, model 2, average vs. slow walking pace, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ho et al., 19 Nov 2020, retrospective, United Kingdom, peer-reviewed, survey, 13 authors.
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Abstract: Open access Original research Frederick K Ho ‍ ‍,1 Carlos A Celis-­Morales,1,2 Stuart R Gray ‍ ‍,2 S Vittal Katikireddi ‍ ‍,1 Claire L Niedzwiedz ‍ ‍,1 Claire Hastie,1 Lyn D Ferguson,2 Colin Berry,2 Daniel F Mackay,1 Jason MR Gill,2 Jill P Pell,1 Naveed Sattar ‍ ‍,2 Paul Welsh2 To cite: Ho FK, Celis-­ Morales CA, Gray SR, et al. Modifiable and non-­modifiable risk factors for COVID-19, and comparison to risk factors for influenza and pneumonia: results from a UK Biobank prospective cohort study. BMJ Open 2020;10:e040402. doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2020-040402 ►► Additional material is published online only. To view please visit the journal Online (http://​dx.​doi.o​ rg/​10.​1136/​ bmjopen-​2020-​040402). Received 12 May 2020 Revised 08 September 2020 Accepted 11 October 2020 © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-­use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ. 1 Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK 2 Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK Correspondence to Dr Paul Welsh; P​ aul.​Welsh@g​ lasgow.​ac.​uk ABSTRACT Objectives We aimed to investigate demographic, lifestyle, socioeconomic and clinical risk factors for COVID-19, and compared them to risk factors for pneumonia and influenza in UK Biobank. Design Cohort study. Setting UK Biobank. Participants 49–83 year olds (in 2020) from a general population study. Main outcome measures Confirmed COVID-19 infection (positive SARS-­CoV-2 test). Incident influenza and pneumonia were obtained from primary care data. Poisson regression was used to study the association of exposure variables with outcomes. Results Among 235 928 participants, 397 had confirmed COVID-19. After multivariable adjustment, modifiable risk factors were higher body mass index and higher glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) (RR 1.28 and RR 1.14 per SD increase, respectively), smoking (RR 1.39), slow walking pace as a proxy for physical fitness (RR 1.53), and use of blood pressure medications as a proxy for hypertension (RR 1.33). Higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and high-­density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were both associated with lower risk (RR 0.84 and RR 0.83 per SD increase, respectively). Non-­modifiable risk factors included male sex (RR 1.72), black ethnicity (RR 2.00), socioeconomic deprivation (RR 1.17 per SD increase in Townsend Index), and high cystatin C (RR 1.13 per SD increase). The risk factors overlapped with pneumonia somewhat, less so for influenza. The associations with modifiable risk factors were generally stronger for COVID-19, than pneumonia or influenza. Conclusion These findings suggest that modification of lifestyle may help to reduce the risk of COVID-19 and could be a useful adjunct to other interventions, such as social distancing and shielding of high risk.
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