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Thymoquinone for COVID-19

Thymoquinone has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Niarakis et al., Drug-target identification in COVID-19 disease mechanisms using computational systems biology approaches, Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1282859
IntroductionThe COVID-19 Disease Map project is a large-scale community effort uniting 277 scientists from 130 Institutions around the globe. We use high-quality, mechanistic content describing SARS-CoV-2-host interactions and develop interoperable bioinformatic pipelines for novel target identification and drug repurposing. MethodsExtensive community work allowed an impressive step forward in building interfaces between Systems Biology tools and platforms. Our framework can link biomolecules from omics data analysis and computational modelling to dysregulated pathways in a cell-, tissue- or patient-specific manner. Drug repurposing using text mining and AI-assisted analysis identified potential drugs, chemicals and microRNAs that could target the identified key factors.ResultsResults revealed drugs already tested for anti-COVID-19 efficacy, providing a mechanistic context for their mode of action, and drugs already in clinical trials for treating other diseases, never tested against COVID-19. DiscussionThe key advance is that the proposed framework is versatile and expandable, offering a significant upgrade in the arsenal for virus-host interactions and other complex pathologies.
Liu et al., Plant‐derived compounds as potential leads for new drug development targeting COVID‐19, Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.8105
AbstractCOVID‐19, which was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China, is a respiratory illness caused by a virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). Although some patients infected with COVID‐19 can remain asymptomatic, most experience a range of symptoms that can be mild to severe. Common symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, loss of taste or smell and muscle aches. In severe cases, complications can arise including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organ failure and even death, particularly in older adults or individuals with underlying health conditions. Treatments for COVID‐19 include remdesivir, which has been authorised for emergency use in some countries, and dexamethasone, a corticosteroid used to reduce inflammation in severe cases. Biological drugs including monoclonal antibodies, such as casirivimab and imdevimab, have also been authorised for emergency use in certain situations. While these treatments have improved the outcome for many patients, there is still an urgent need for new treatments. Medicinal plants have long served as a valuable source of new drug leads and may serve as a valuable resource in the development of COVID‐19 treatments due to their broad‐spectrum antiviral activity. To date, various medicinal plant extracts have been studied for their cellular and molecular interactions, with some demonstrating anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 activity in vitro. This review explores the evaluation and potential therapeutic applications of these plants against SARS‐CoV‐2. This review summarises the latest evidence on the activity of different plant extracts and their isolated bioactive compounds against SARS‐CoV‐2, with a focus on the application of plant‐derived compounds in animal models and in human studies.
Shahali et al., A Comprehensive Review on Potentially Therapeutic Agents against COVID-19 from Natural Sources, Current Traditional Medicine, doi:10.2174/2215083809666230203142343
Abstract: Acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the recent pandemic and worldwide outbreak of respiratory disease. Since there are no known specific drugs for fighting this virus and the process for new drug development is lengthy, scientists have been trying to develop drugs against this viral infection. The potent antiviral activity of natural products has been confirmed in several previous studies. Viral and host proteins contributing to COVID-19 infections can be targeted by natural compounds derived from plants, marine organisms, and microorganisms. The most important of these compounds are polyphenols (e.g., anthraquinone polyphenol, hinokinin, curcumin, and epigallocatechin gallate), alkaloids (e.g., isoquinoline, 10- hydroxyusambarensine, anisotine, and adhatodine), and terpenoids (salvinorin A, thymoquinone, bilobalide, ginkgolide A, and celastrol) from plants, sulphated polysaccharides (carrageenans, chondroitin sulfate C, and fucoidan) from marine organisms, and glycocin F and lactococcin G phycocyanin, and lipopeptide from microorganisms. This study reviews these compounds and their mechanism of action for treating COVID-19 infection and guides researchers in developing effective and safe therapeutic agents against this disease from naturally derived compounds.
Jaber, S., The effect of a small polyphenolic and terpenoids phytochemical constituent on curing and preventing of Covid-19 infections, Pharmacia, doi:10.3897/pharmacia.70.e106534
Covid-19 spreading have caused millions of deaths worldwide and caused sever economic shrinking resulted in high levels of inflations. The on going pandemic has pushed the pharmaceutical companies to invent different vaccines to overcome the spreading of the virus and to reduce its effect on health and economy. Unfortunately, the middle and low income countries have been struggling in providing vaccines to their people due to the high expenses associated with vaccines ordering. Thus, the interest in finding a treatment and a prevention of Covid-19 from natural products has increased not in those countries only, even in high income countries. In this review we investigated the promising natural phytochemical compounds and their published mechanism of action in a prestigious peer-reviewed research journal throw different molecular docking and in vivo and vitro techniques. Its was found that the consumption of the medicinal plants containing small phenolic and terpenoids phytoconstituent like as thymoquinone, quercetin, caffeic acid, ursolic acid, ellagic acid, vanillin, and thymol have a great therapeutic effect for curing and preventing viral infections. This review has focused on the small polyphenolic and terpenoids compounds and their potential and mechanism activity against SARS-CoV-2. Our comprehensive analysis provides mechanistic insight into plant components for virus containment prevent infections and provide better solutions through natural therapeutically active ingredients.
Abdallah et al., Bio-Guided Isolation of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors from Medicinal Plants: In Vitro Assay and Molecular Dynamics, Plants, doi:10.3390/plants11151914
Since the emergence of the pandemic of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the discovery of antiviral phytoconstituents from medicinal plants against SARS-CoV-2 has been comprehensively researched. In this study, thirty-three plants belonging to seventeen different families used traditionally in Saudi Arabia were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MPRO). Major constituents of the bio-active extracts were isolated and tested for their inhibition potential against this enzyme; in addition, their antiviral activity against the SARS-CoV-2 Egyptian strain was assessed. Further, the thermodynamic stability of the best active compounds was studied through focused comparative insights for the active metabolites regarding ligand–target binding characteristics at the molecular level. Additionally, the obtained computational findings provided useful directions for future drug optimization and development. The results revealed that Psiadia punctulata, Aframomum melegueta, and Nigella sativa extracts showed a high percentage of inhibition of 66.4, 58.7, and 31.5%, against SARS-CoV-2 MPRO, respectively. The major isolated constituents of these plants were identified as gardenins A and B (from P. punctulata), 6-gingerol and 6-paradol (from A. melegueta), and thymoquinone (from N. sativa). These compounds are the first to be tested invitro against SARS-CoV-2 MPRO. Among the isolated compounds, only thymoquinone (THY), gardenin A (GDA), 6-gingerol (GNG), and 6-paradol (PAD) inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 MPRO enzyme with inhibition percentages of 63.21, 73.80, 65.2, and 71.8%, respectively. In vitro assessment of SARS-CoV-2 (hCoV-19/Egypt/NRC-03/2020 (accession number on GSAID: EPI_ISL_430820) revealed a strong-to-low antiviral activity of the isolated compounds. THY showed relatively high cytotoxicity and was anti-SARS-CoV-2, while PAD demonstrated a cytotoxic effect on the tested VERO cells with a selectivity index of CC50/IC50 = 1.33 and CC50/IC50 = 0.6, respectively. Moreover, GNG had moderate activity at non-cytotoxic concentrations in vitro with a selectivity index of CC50/IC50 = 101.3/43.45 = 2.3. Meanwhile, GDA showed weak activity with a selectivity index of CC50/IC50 = 246.5/83.77 = 2.9. The thermodynamic stability of top-active compounds revealed preferential stability and SARS-CoV-2 MPRO binding affinity for PAD through molecular-docking-coupled molecular dynamics simulation. The obtained results suggest the treating potential of these plants and/or their active metabolites for COVID-19. However, further in-vivo and clinical investigations are required to establish the potential preventive and treatment effectiveness of these plants and/or their bio-active compounds in COVID-19.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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