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Sarilumab for COVID-19

Sarilumab has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Agamah et al., Network-based multi-omics-disease-drug associations reveal drug repurposing candidates for COVID-19 disease phases, ScienceOpen, doi:10.58647/DRUGARXIV.PR000010.v1
Background:The development and roll-out of vaccines, and the use of various drugs have contributed to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, challenges such as the inequitable distribution of vaccines, the influence of emerging viral lineages and immune evasive variants on vaccine efficacy, and the inadequate immune defense in subgroups of the population continue to motivate the development of new drugs to combat the disease. Aim:In this study, we sought to identify, prioritize, and characterize drug repurposing candidates appropriate for treating mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19 using a network-based integrative approach that systematically integrates drug-related data and multi-omics datasets. Methods: We leveraged drug data, and multi-omics data, and used a random walk restart algorithm to explore an integrated knowledge graph comprised of three sub-graphs: (i) a COVID-19 knowledge graph, (ii) a drug repurposing knowledge graph, and (iii) a COVID-19 disease-state specific omics graph. Results:We prioritized twenty FDA-approved agents as potential candidate drugs for mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 disease phases. Specifically, drugs that could stimulate immune cell recruitment and activation including histamine, curcumin, and paclitaxel have potential utility in mild disease states to mitigate disease progression. Drugs like omacetaxine, crizotinib, and vorinostat that exhibit antiviral properties and have the potential to inhibit viral replication can be considered for mild to moderate COVID-19 disease states. Also, given the association between antioxidant deficiency and high inflammatory factors that trigger cytokine storms, antioxidants like glutathione can be considered for moderate disease states. Drugs that exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects like (i) anti-inflammatory drugs (sarilumab and tocilizumab), (ii) corticosteroids (dexamethasone and hydrocortisone), and (iii) immunosuppressives (sirolimus and cyclosporine) are potential candidates for moderate to severe disease states that trigger a hyperinflammatory cascade of COVID-19. Conclusion:Our study demonstrates that the multi-omics data-driven integrative analysis within the drug data enables prioritizing drug candidates for COVID-19 disease phases, offering a comprehensive basis for therapeutic strategies that can be brought to market quickly given their established safety profiles. Importantly, the multi-omics data-driven integrative analysis within the drug data approach implemented here can be used to prioritize drug repurposing candidates appropriate for other diseases.
Sharun et al., A comprehensive review on pharmacologic agents, immunotherapies and supportive therapeutics for COVID-19, Narra J, doi:10.52225/narra.v2i3.92
The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected many countries throughout the world. As urgency is a necessity, most efforts have focused on identifying small molecule drugs that can be repurposed for use as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Although several drug candidates have been identified using in silico method and in vitro studies, most of these drugs require the support of in vivo data before they can be considered for clinical trials. Several drugs are considered promising therapeutic agents for COVID-19. In addition to the direct-acting antiviral drugs, supportive therapies including traditional Chinese medicine, immunotherapies, immunomodulators, and nutritional therapy could contribute a major role in treating COVID-19 patients. Some of these drugs have already been included in the treatment guidelines, recommendations, and standard operating procedures. In this article, we comprehensively review the approved and potential therapeutic drugs, immune cells-based therapies, immunomodulatory agents/drugs, herbs and plant metabolites, nutritional and dietary for COVID-19.
Vlasova-St. Louis et al., COVID-19-Omics Report: From Individual Omics Approaches to Precision Medicine, Reports, doi:10.3390/reports6040045
During the COVID-19 pandemic, it became apparent that precision medicine relies heavily on biological multi-omics discoveries. High throughput omics technologies, such as host genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, metabolomics/lipidomics, and microbiomics, have become an integral part of precision diagnostics. The large number of data generated by omics technologies allows for the identification of vulnerable demographic populations that are susceptible to poor disease outcomes. Additionally, these data help to pinpoint the omics-based biomarkers that are currently driving advancements in precision and preventive medicine, such as early diagnosis and disease prognosis, individualized treatments, and vaccination. This report summarizes COVID-19-omic studies, highlights the results of completed and ongoing omics investigations in individuals who have experienced severe disease outcomes, and examines the impact that repurposed/novel antiviral drugs, targeted immunotherapeutics, and vaccines have had on individual and public health.
Moura et al., Converging Paths: A Comprehensive Review of the Synergistic Approach between Complementary Medicines and Western Medicine in Addressing COVID-19 in 2020, BioMed, doi:10.3390/biomed3020025
The rapid spread of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic. Although specific vaccines are available and natural drugs are being researched, supportive care and specific treatments to alleviate symptoms and improve patient quality of life remain critical. Chinese medicine (CM) has been employed in China due to the similarities between the epidemiology, genomics, and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Moreover, the integration of other traditional oriental medical systems into the broader framework of integrative medicine can offer a powerful approach to managing the disease. Additionally, it has been reported that integrated medicine has better effects and does not increase adverse drug reactions in the context of COVID-19. This article examines preventive measures, potential infection mechanisms, and immune responses in Western medicine (WM), as well as the pathophysiology based on principles of complementary medicine (CM). The convergence between WM and CM approaches, such as the importance of maintaining a strong immune system and promoting preventive care measures, is also addressed. Current treatment options, traditional therapies, and classical prescriptions based on empirical knowledge are also explored, with individual patient circumstances taken into account. An analysis of the potential benefits and challenges associated with the integration of complementary and Western medicine (WM) in the treatment of COVID-19 can provide valuable guidance, enrichment, and empowerment for future research endeavors.
Gudima et al., Antiviral Therapy of COVID-19, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms24108867
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the scientific community has focused on prophylactic vaccine development. In parallel, the experience of the pharmacotherapy of this disease has increased. Due to the declining protective capacity of vaccines against new strains, as well as increased knowledge about the structure and biology of the pathogen, control of the disease has shifted to the focus of antiviral drug development over the past year. Clinical data on safety and efficacy of antivirals acting at various stages of the virus life cycle has been published. In this review, we summarize mechanisms and clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy of COVID-19 with drugs based on plasma of convalescents, monoclonal antibodies, interferons, fusion inhibitors, nucleoside analogs, and protease inhibitors. The current status of the drugs described is also summarized in relation to the official clinical guidelines for the treatment of COVID-19. In addition, here we describe innovative drugs whose antiviral effect is provided by antisense oligonucleotides targeting the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Analysis of laboratory and clinical data suggests that current antivirals successfully combat broad spectra of emerging strains of SARS-CoV-2 providing reliable defense against COVID-19.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Nayak et al., Prospects of Novel and Repurposed Immunomodulatory Drugs against Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Associated with COVID-19 Disease, Journal of Personalized Medicine, doi:10.3390/jpm13040664
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is intricately linked with SARS-CoV-2-associated disease severity and mortality, especially in patients with co-morbidities. Lung tissue injury caused as a consequence of ARDS leads to fluid build-up in the alveolar sacs, which in turn affects oxygen supply from the capillaries. ARDS is a result of a hyperinflammatory, non-specific local immune response (cytokine storm), which is aggravated as the virus evades and meddles with protective anti-viral innate immune responses. Treatment and management of ARDS remain a major challenge, first, because the condition develops as the virus keeps replicating and, therefore, immunomodulatory drugs are required to be used with caution. Second, the hyperinflammatory responses observed during ARDS are quite heterogeneous and dependent on the stage of the disease and the clinical history of the patients. In this review, we present different anti-rheumatic drugs, natural compounds, monoclonal antibodies, and RNA therapeutics and discuss their application in the management of ARDS. We also discuss on the suitability of each of these drug classes at different stages of the disease. In the last section, we discuss the potential applications of advanced computational approaches in identifying reliable drug targets and in screening out credible lead compounds against ARDS.
Astasio-Picado et al., Therapeutic Targets in the Virological Mechanism and in the Hyperinflammatory Response of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Applied Sciences, doi:10.3390/app13074471
This work is a bibliographic review. The search for the necessary information was carried out in the months of November 2022 and January 2023. The databases used were as follows: Pubmed, Academic Google, Scielo, Scopus, and Cochrane library. Results: In total, 101 articles were selected after a review of 486 articles from databases and after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The update on the molecular mechanism of human coronavirus (HCoV) infection was reviewed, describing possible therapeutic targets in the viral response phase. There are different strategies to prevent or hinder the introduction of the viral particle, as well as the replicative mechanism ((protease inhibitors and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)). The second phase of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) involves the activation of hyperinflammatory cascades of the host’s immune system. It is concluded that there are potential therapeutic targets and drugs under study in different proinflammatory pathways such as hydroxychloroquine, JAK inhibitors, interleukin 1 and 6 inhibitors, and interferons.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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