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Cetylpyridinium chloride for COVID-19

Cetylpyridinium chloride has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Anderson et al., Virucidal activity of CPC-containing oral rinses against SARS-CoV-2 variants and are active in the presence of human saliva, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.08.05.455040
AbstractThe role of human saliva in aerosol-based transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has highlighted the need to understand the potential of oral hygiene products to inactivate the virus. Here we examined the efficacy of mouthwashes containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) or chlorhexidine (CHX) in inactivating SARS-CoV-2. After 30 seconds contact under standard aqueous conditions CPC mouthwashes achieved a ≥4.0log10 PFU/mL reduction in SARS-CoV-2 (USA-WA1/2020) titres whereas comparable products containing CHX achieved <2.0log10 PFU/mL reduction. Further testing with CPC mouthwashes demonstrated efficacy against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants, with inactivation below the limit of detection observed against the Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351) and Gamma (P.1) variants. Virucidal efficacy of CPC mouthwash was also observed in the presence of human saliva with the product delivering ≥4.0log10 PFU/mL reduction in SARS-CoV-2 titres after 30 seconds providing additional evidence for the virucidal efficacy of CPC mouthwashes under simulated physiological conditions. Together these data suggest CPC-based mouthwashes are effective at inactivating SARS-CoV-2 and further supports the use of mouthwash to mitigate the risk of transmission during dentistry procedures.
Okamoto et al., Virucidal activity and mechanism of action of cetylpyridinium chloride against SARS-CoV-2, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.01.27.477964
Objective: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic. Recent studies have shown the importance of the throat and salivary glands as sites of virus replication and transmission. The viral host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is broadly enriched in epithelial cells of the salivary glands and oral mucosae. Oral care products containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a bactericidal ingredient are known to exhibit antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. However, the exact mechanism of action remains unknown. Methods: This study examined the antiviral activity of CPC against SARS-CoV-2 and its inhibitory effect on the interaction between the viral spike (S) protein and ACE2 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: CPC (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.3%) effectively inactivated SARS-CoV-2 within the contact times (20 and 60 s) in directions for use of oral care products in vitro. The binding ability of both the S protein and ACE2 were reduced by CPC. Conclusions: Our results suggest that CPC inhibits the interaction between S protein and ACE2, and thus, reduces infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and suppresses viral adsorption.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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